Today thousands of hemp seed varieties are available. A farmer growing cannabis plants can choose a specific seed and ensure the appropriate content of THC. Considering that according to the legal requirement, the final product should contain no more than 0.2 % THC, it is very important that seeds meet all the requirements.
Hemp cannot be grown anywhere. Hemp grows best on a loose, well-aerated loam soil with high fertility and abundant organic matter with a pH of 6.0-7.5. Sandy soils can grow good hemp, with adequate irrigation and fertilisation, but it requires additional costs that make production uneconomical.
Organic hemp and non-organic hemp
Organic hemp grows in natural surroundings, with sunlight and water. Non-organic hemp grows with pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers 1 . Therefore, organic CBD oil is CBD oil extracted from organically grown hemp. In the UK, organic CBD will be labeled “Certified Organic”.
Indoor and outdoor growth
Hemp can be grown either indoor or outdoor. Outdoor growth is an environmentally-friendly option. Indoor growth requires lighting, humidity, air, and humidity control 2 . This method gives the possibility for farmers to grow the hemp all year round.
Hemp matures in 90-120 days depending on a number of factors like variety, seeding date and temperature. Industrial hemp is harvested when the seed begins to shatter 2 .
Extraction methods of CBD
There are numerous methods to extract CBD from the hemp plant. EU rules determine cold pressing as the only method allowed. Under the authorization, other methods can be approved. They include the following:
- Propane or butane extraction. It is the most common method for extracting compounds because butane or propane gas passes through the plant material and leaves only a safe residual trace in the oil. This kind of extract is also known as shatter, which is clear material including THC, CBD, and other chemicals like terpenes 3 .
- Supercritical Co2 extraction. It is considered safer than propane or butane extraction, and it is a non-toxic one. The extraction agent in the supercritical Co2 extraction process is carbon dioxide compressed under high pressure. As the process finishes, the gaseous element discharges to the atmosphere, leaving no trace and with no need for additional removal. The plant extracts obtained by this method are microbiologically sterile while preserving the full spectrum of natural ingredients. It is now the most modern and the most effective means of getting polyunsaturated oils, flavonoids and anthocyanins 4 .
- Alcohol extraction. It is the method when the plant is soaked in alcohol. The plant material is removed, the liquid is filtered, and the alcohol is evaporated, leaving only the oil 5 .
CBD oil is heavily dense, and various oils are used to carry the constituents of hemp. They may be the following:
- Almond oil
- Olive oil
- Palm oil
Certification and lab testing
When lab testing is performed on a CBD product, samples for testing typically are taken from several portions of a large batch to ensure accurate readings. Once the samples are submitted to a lab, they may be subjected to a screening to determine potency and purity. The certificate of analysis provides the sample information.
The price depends on size, strength and product type. But one should remember, a good product cannon be cheap. It is always better to pay a bit more for a high-quality product.
- Bennett C. Growing Hemp for CBD, Seed or Fiber. AgWeb. https://www.agweb.com/article/growing-hemp-for-cbd-seed-or-fiber-NAA-chris-bennett. Accessed December 8, 2019.
- Wissett R. On the Cultivation and Preparation of Hemp. Cox and Son; 1804.
- Tallon S, Moreno T, Montanes F, Watson M. Extraction and fractionation of cannabinoids from “cannabis sativa.” Chemeca 2018. 2018:133.
- Rovetto LJ, Aieta NV. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L. J Supercrit Fluids. 2017;129:16-27. doi:10.1016/j.supflu.2017.03.014
- Pavlovic R, Nenna G, Calvi L, et al. Quality Traits of “Cannabidiol Oils”: Cannabinoids Content, Terpene Fingerprint and Oxidation Stability of European Commercially Available Preparations. Mol J Synth Chem Nat Prod Chem. 2018;23(5). doi:10.3390/molecules23051230
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Seed selection Today thousands of hemp seed varieties are available. A farmer growing cannabis plants can choose a specific seed and ensure the appropriate content of THC. Considering that
New ‘Seed-to-Shelf’ CBD Blockchain Tracking Tool from Holland | 18-08-2020 |
While the European Cannabidiol (CBD) industry remains plagued by regulatory uncertainties, the Cannabinoid Association of the Netherlands (CAN) has unveiled a free blockchain-based CBD tracker for customers to trace a product’s journey from seed-to-sale.
A recent statement from CAN announced it would make the on line blockchain tool, CanCheck, available to track CBD products in the EU online. HempFlax, one of the group’s founding members, and Europe’s largest independent grower and processor of industrial hemp, will be one of the first to offer traceable CAN products.
CEO of the Dutch Association, Mark Reinders said full traceability would help protect consumers as they could now “trace the production of hemp-derived CBD products from shelf to seed.” CAN developed the tracking platform in cooperation with the Dutch non-profit organization Novatrace, which develops blockchain solutions for tracking supply chains.
The platform does not work with QR codes. The information must be obtained by entering a number or the product name. While it is currently only available in The Netherlands, the plan is to roll it out in the UK, where regulatory security exists and eight million customers are now using CBD products.
CBD is legal in the EU, but the Commission recently decided to no longer regard products containing CBD as novel food. Classification as an intoxicant is therefore possible, which could halt the trade on hemp products across Europe. The final decision is scheduled for September. So these compliance efforts may send a positive signal to Brussels.
The concept isn’t limited to CBD organizations in Europe. StrainSecure, a similar blockchain-based cannabis tracker in North America, announced earlier in 2020 that it would be providing DNA-based validation of medical cannabis products. Cannabis is legal in Canada for both recreational and medicinal purposes, but legality in the United States varies from state to state.
Uruguay was the first country in the world to completely legalize cannabis production and sale. It was also one of the first countries with a supply chain tracker using blockchain Aeternity.
AIPIA, the Smart Packaging Association. Data mining, extended shelf life, consumer engagement, brand authentication, security, less waste and improved logistics & recycling through the implementation of smart packaging technologies.