THE CANNABIS GROW BIBLE
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2 2 THE CANNABIS GROW BIBLE Copyright 2001, Greg Green All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the author.
3 3 The Cannabis Grow Bible 4th edition By Greg Green
4 4 Acknowledgements My thanks to my family and friends for making this book possible. This book is dedicated to growers all over the world. I would also like to say thank you to the members of and a really big thank you going out to
, The Penguin, Kryptonite, Strawdog, Slowhand, Chimera, BushyOlderGrower, Ralpheme, RealHigh and Vic High. This is a book about growing cannabis, written by people who grow cannabis.
5 5 DO YOU WANT TO LEARN HOW TO GROW POT LIKE THIS?
6 6 Picture by BushyOlderGrower.
7 7 OR MAKE HASH LIKE THIS?
8 8 Picture by BigIslandBud.
9 9 THEN CONGRATULATIONS BECAUSE YOU HAVE BOUGHT THE RIGHT BOOK! PREFACE This book has been written under adverse conditions. In most countries it is illegal to own seeds, grow cannabis or use cannabis. Maybe it will change for you one day if you make the effort to have your voice heard. Until that day, it is recommended that you consult your local authorities to see what is your countries legal status with regards to growing cannabis. This book does not want you to break the law nor is it here for that purpose. This book is about cannabis and how it is grown around the world. Even though the contents of this book may show you how to acquire seeds and grow very potent plants, you are responsible for your own actions. We would like to see you grow cannabis however we would not like to see you break the law. I would also like to say that many countries have permitted medical users to grow cannabis in their home. If they have in your country then this book will be of massive
10 10 benefit to you and your health. The Cannabis Grow Bible is part of a foundation series and is a developing project. We listen too and talk with 100’s of growers every single year. It is with their advice that we can offer you the latest updates on growing techniques and strains. The Cannabis Grow Bible is an information system. We hope that you stick with us and learn more about how to grow BIGGER BUD!
11 11 CONTENTS PREFACE FOREWORD Chapter 1 : THE CANNABIS PLANT: A BRIEF HISTORY OF CANNABIS AND THE BASICS OF USING CANNABIS. -HOW CANNABIS IS USED -SPECIES -THC -ZERO ZERO -RESIN -THE HIGH Chapter 2 : SEEDS – SEEDS – HOW TO GET SEEDS
12 12 – CHOOSING A SEED-BANK – WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN CHOOSING SEEDS – GROWING FACTORS – THE LIFE CYCLE OF THE MARIJUANA PLANT – FLOWERING NON-POLLINATED FEMALES (SINSEMILLA CROP): – CYCLE TIMES Chapter 3 : PROPAGATION -WAYS TO GERMINATE YOUR SEEDS -DANGERS WHEN PROPAGATING SEEDS -TRANSPLANTING -GERMINATION SOIL -INDOOR AND OUTDOOR GROWING -GENERAL INDOOR GROWING -GENERAL OUTDOOR GROWING AND GUERRILLA FARMING -GARDENING TOOLS -MALE POTENCY -SCUFFING SEEDS Chapter 4 : SECURITY -SECURITY -INDOOR SECURITY -OUTDOOR SECURITY
13 13 -GUERRILLA GROWING SECURITY Chapter 5 : THE INDOOR GROWING OF CANNABIS -LIGHTS -LIGHT BANDS -POOR LIGHTING SYSTEMS -AVERAGE LIGHTING SYSTEMS -BEST LIGHTING SYSTEMS -HORTICULTURAL LIGHTS – HID -WHAT TO LOOK FOR WHEN BUYING A LIGHT. -WATTAGE AND LUMENS -LUMENS AND MARIJUANA GROWING -LIGHTING FACTORS AND HOW TO GET THE MOST FROM YOUR LIGHT -SOIL -ph -NUTRIENTS -SOME COMMON SOIL TYPES -POTS -CONTINUING YOUR INDOOR SOIL GROW -INDOOR VEGETATIVE GROWTH -WATERING -ADJUSTING YOU LIGHTS
14 14 Chapter 6 : THE BASICS OF INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL -SOIL CONTROL -ph CONTROL -SOIL FLUSHING -NUTRIENT CONTROL -FEEDING -AIR -HUMIDITY -TEMPERATURE -FANS Chapter 7 : PRE-FLOWERING AND FLOWERING -THE END OF VEGETATIVE GROWTH -PRE-FLOWERING -EARLY SEXING METHODS -WHEN TO FLOWER -THE ALL IMPORTANT 12/12 -PROBLEMS WITH 12/12 -HOW TO SEX YOUR PLANTS -HERMAPHRODITES
15 15 -FLOWERING Chapter 8 : ADVANCED INDOOR SOIL BASED GROW METHODS -SOG -ScrOG -CABINET GROWING -ADVANCED SET-UPS -PERPETUAL GROW CYCLE Chapter 9 : BASIC HYDROPONICS – THE GROWER AND THE GROWING MEDIUM – HYDROPONICS SET-UPS -HYDROPONICS NUTRIENTS -HYDROPONICS GROWING MEDIUMS -CANNABIS AND HYDROPONICS -THE BUBBLER
16 16 Chapter 10 : OUTDOOR GROWING -THE GROWER AND THE GREAT OUTDOORS -CARING FOR OUTDOOR PLANTS Chapter 11 : THE BASICS OF PLANT CARE -THINNING -LIGHT BENDING -PRUNING -BUSHES -TRAINING -INCREASING YIELD Chapter 12 : PREDATORS AND PESTS -INDEX OF PESTS -CLEANING THE GROW ROOM
17 17 Chapter 13 : PROBLEM SOLVER – PLANT PROBLEMS AND HOW TO SOLVE THEM – POT-BOUND AND ROOT-BOUND -LOCKOUT -BAD GENETICS Chapter 14: HARVESTING AND CURING YOUR BUD – INDICA HARVEST -SATIVA HARVEST -FAN LEAVES, LEAVES AND TRIM -CURING Chapter 15: BREEDING – MAKING SEEDS -POLLEN -SIMPLE BREEDING -HOW TO CONTINUE A STRAIN THROUGH SEED -HOW TO MAKE A SIMPLE HYBRID
18 18 -AN INTRODUCTION INTO BASIC GENETICS -GENE PAIRS -DOMINANT AND RECESSIVE -MODIFYING GENES -PARTIAL DOMINANCE -HARDY-WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM -THE TEST CROSS -HARDY-WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM PART 2 -HOW TO TRUE BREED A STRAIN -CUBING AND BACKCROSSING -SELFING Chapter 16: STRAIN INDEX Chapter 17: HOW TO MAKE HASH – HOW TO GATHER THE STALKED CAPITATE TRICHOMES -SKUFF -BASICS OF SCREENING -PROPER SCREENING METHODS -HOW TO PRESS SKUFF INTO HASH
19 19 GLOSSARY OF TERMS INDEX
20 20 FOREWORD The book is a grow bible. There is still much work that needs to be done to provide something that is truly of bible size, but that will come in time. The reason why I know this is because cannabis suppression has suspended cannabis information gathering over the past 60 years. I can safely say that you can find books on Roses that are 10 times thicker than this book with heaps more information. Roses are not illegal in most countries, so scientists are free to explore the Rose. Sadly the same can not be said for cannabis. until now. The Cannabis Grow Bible (CGB for short) is new. New, in that the book is one of a kind. Those who are willing to take serious risks in getting you this information have discovered most of what you will read and learn here. It is fine and easy for me to compile the book and write it. I am not at risk by printing this book, but those who grew out hundreds of plants in their basement to provide me with raw data on this subject matter are at risk. It is with their help that they have been able to help me parse what is real and what is not in the world
21 21 of growing cannabis. They have helped take facts and figures and use these to put together a book that would truly help someone grow bigger buds. The result has been outstanding and I am very thankful for what they did. In this book you will learn a number of things. Probably too many to remember all in one go if this is your first time growing. That is why I have broken the book into easy step by step portions. The book runs from start to finish just like a growing plant would. So you can imagine the life cycle of the cannabis plant being the foundation for the style and layout of this book. This is what makes the book work. It is part essay / part science. Too many books do not cover the science very well and others do not cover the practical side very well. Here you will meet both worlds as one. There are some simple things you need to grow a cannabis plant and this book will explain all those things to you, but there are other things you need to know to grow a super cannabis plant and this is where the book helps too, but it does not cross the two elements over which can sometimes confuse the reader.
22 22 The book will clearly define what you can or can not do, but most of the time this has nothing to do with your growing experience. It has more to do with how much money you are willing to spend, what cannabis strains you have, and where you are growing. A grower is not limited by their growing experience. A grower is limited by law, space, money, information and good genetics. We can not help you with money, space and the law, but we can help you with growing information and we can tell you where to obtain good genetics. Don’t ever let bad results hamper your new hobby. That is part of the process of learning. However, this book will point out some mistakes that people have made, so you don’t have to repeat them and learn the hard way. Glance over this book and flick through the chapters. Get an air of what is going on. Then read it all from start to finish. By the time you turn the last page, you will probably have a bit of your own home grown bud in a pipe. If you can do that then tell people about this book. It is our goal to get everyone participating in growing the great herb.
23 23 This is not the final book on the subject either. This book has been designed in such a way that the book will grow on a yearly basis. We will be adding new chapters, new pictures, new methods and new theories every year. That is why the cannabis grow bible has become the growers handbook of choice. We hope that you stick with us and we hope that this book will help you to get where you want to go. Happy growing and most of all remember to. have FUN! Greg Green.
24 24 The Cannabis Grow Bible By Greg Green “Since it’s inception marijuana is natural. Given by God for all living creatures to use. Let peace and sanity prevail, let the herb grow free. There is no finer hobby on this planet, than tending to a garden that gives such delightful rewards.” – Greg Green.
25 25 Chapter 1 THE CANNABIS PLANT: A BRIEF HISTORY OF CANNABIS AND THE BASICS OF USING CANNABIS. This picture is of a young female Skunk#1 plant developing her flower cluster. This picture is from Strawdog. Cannabis plants have been living on this planet for thousands, maybe millions of years, and have been doing so for quite some time before man s intervention and after. Cannabis can grow nearly everywhere and anywhere as long
26 26 as the temperature is not too low and there is enough sunlight and food present for the plant to flourish. In Asia, one can travel to the various regions around Mongolia and visit the cannabis plant naturally growing on the hillsides and across the vast plains, sometimes covering entire hill faces and spreading down onto the valley below. The Cannabis plant is a very adaptable plant and can grow both in and outdoors. The Cannabis plant has managed to travel across the globe without the help of man. The seed has been carried by the wind, in bird droppings and has attached itself to animals that can, and do, trek over long distances. As you can see Mother Nature has distributed this plant in many ways. The origins of the Cannabis plant are not entirely clear but today it is generally recognized by most biologists and cannabis researchers that it began it s life somewhere in the Himalayas (Figure 1.1).
27 27 Figure This is section of the map of Asia. The area in the square is where scientists believe cannabis started its Life. Today, human intervention has caused the Cannabis plant to grow under more controlled conditions and in areas where the plant would not have had a previous history. It is estimated that in most countries there must be at least 2-12 different cannabis strains growing wildly. Wild Cannabis plants are rare in countries that have tried to eliminate the plant by
28 28 burning fields and conditioning woodlands. In certain countries the Cannabis plant has been identified as a dangerous drug and has been killed off by human beings and law enforcement officials. It is treated as a weed and as a plant that causes social, mental and physical problems. None of these reasons for removing the plant are well founded but the cull of cannabis has occurred anyhow. The Cannabis plant was used for many things other than the extraction of THC (to be discussed later). Our ancestors, up until the late 1800 s early 1900 s, used the Cannabis plant to create clothing and other materials. The Cannabis plant or hemp as it is called in the textile industry is a very strong material and will withstand large amounts of stress applied to it. Hemp material is widely regarded as one of the best possible materials for producing fabrics. A pair of trousers made from hemp, or a shirt made from hemp will withstand the test of time. It is a far more superior material than cotton. This should give you some clues as to why the fabrics industry wanted to put a stop to the cultivation of marijuana in the late 1800 s. Hemp fabric products will last longer than cotton fabric products thus the
29 29 buyer buys less over longer periods of time. This is the first instance of the Cannabis plant being subjected to ridicule for capitalist gain. The Cannabis plant has been subjected to a number of stereotypical formats. The first one is that the resin produced by the plant is physically addictive. This is not true and I will explain why. In psychiatry there is a list of classifications for addictions of all abusive substances. It is contained in a paper called – ICD-10 (classifications of Mental and Behavioural Disorders) with you can read here. Medical doctors are not informed clearly about the use and abuse of cannabis. This is because cannabis research is illegal in most countries or if research is allowed most of the results are suppressed. The only way a medical doctor can help a person with a cannabis problem is by having some experience with people who have had cannabis problems in the past. There are no special books to turn too. There are no references which explain clearly what to do or IF cannabis is physically addictive. There are no pills for cannabis addiction (there are for
30 30 alcoholism). The only place a doctor can go is to the archives of what other countries have said about the drug and it’s abuse. As a doctor, one would maybe try Holland and read up on some of the material there, or Belgium or Switzerland. There can be found medical research papers that relate to cannabis dependence and all of them say the same thing. (A) Can it be abused? YES. (B) Can it be addictive? YES. (C) Is cannabis abuse or use life threatening? NO, but mental side effects such a depression can be, but only a small percentage of addicts (NOT USERS, BUT ADDICTS) go through this. (D) Has anyone ever died of cannabis use? ONLY 1 PERSON in the history of cannabis has died from its use, but read on. Bruce Lee, the martial arts expert died after taking cannabis, but the death certificate was later changed too ‘death by misadventure’ because of another medical herb that he took which he did not know he was allergic too. So the correct answer is 0 people have died from using cannabis. (E) How do you treat cannabis addiction? Psychotherapy is the only answer. In fact there are absolutely no reasons for the prohibition of cannabis, other than:
31 31 1) It is hard to tell if someone is under the influence of cannabis. Driving/working with machinery may be problems here. 2) People might smoke too much and become a little lazy. 3) Many governments have prohibited it for over 70 years and it would seem very stupid if they told everyone that they where wrong about it. Now let us look at these points for a moment. 1) Yes it is hard to tell and make no mistake – if you drive smoking cannabis then you are just as stupid as if you where driving under the influence of alcohol. It is never advised to use cannabis and then perform a procedure, like driving, which requires your total attention. As of yet there is no on the spot breathalyser test for cannabis use, but there are tests to determine if someone has used cannabis recently, in the last few hours, in the last few days, weeks or months. However, alcohol is not banned in a lot of countries but cannabis is.
32 32 2) It happens. Some people do smoke too much pot and they become docile to the point where they just want to watch television and eat. However, if there is no money about, and the person needs to survive or live somehow, you will soon find that person can restore their life back to the way it was before they started their cannabis binge by simply – Not smoking for a few days. A few days of not smoking is all it takes to rid cannabis of any effects it has had on the human body. There may be residual cannabinoids left in the system but this does not pose any problems and will soon wear away. This is not that easy with alcohol or heroin user. They will have to go through a long period of detoxification before they can resume a normal life. A cannabis user does not have to go through the detoxification period because there simply is none. Not only does the alcohol user have to spend a few days getting it out of his/her system but they will also have to deal with the withdrawal symptoms. This can last for months. With cannabis, it is simply, stop smoking cannabis and resume operations as normal. (Note: Pharmaceutical firms would love to sell a pill to cure
33 33 cannabis addiction, but as of yet can not. They can not prove that their pill does anything because there are no cannabis withdrawal systems to observe. Thus the pill would be deemed a fraudulent product if put on the market.) Also many homeless people’s living standards in most cases are attributed to alcohol dependence/addiction and rarely, IF ever, is their low living standard attributed to cannabis dependence. Cannabis dependence is psychological. Treatment of cannabis addiction is done by psychiatrists and psychologists and GP’s. Heroin and alcohol is treated by psychiatrists, psychologists, GP’s and doctors of internal medicine for the somatic systems of addiction. 3) This is a major problem because the government may have to set people free from prison and radically change their justice departments stance on cannabis which means that jobs will be lost and revenues will be lost if cannabis was decriminalized. Cannabis prohibition is a booming industry that creates jobs and capital. However if cannabis was decriminalised then these lost profits could be derived from a new cannabis industry.
34 34 Probably one of the best sites for medical information is or One other thing to mention is that street cannabis may contain other added drugs. In most clinical cases, a person who complains about cannabis addiction and shows physical signs of addiction is not actually addicted to cannabis. They are addicted to the other drug substances that the supplier has added to his produce to make it stronger. 100% home grown clean cannabis does not contain physical additive properties. People who add other drugs to cannabis are not doing the cannabis community a favour. This is a good reason to grow your own pot. There are many strains or versions of the Cannabis plant alive today. Most strains are the result of human intervention and these are the types you will most likely come across or even smoke. Breeders try to produce strains that are tasty, smell good and give the user different types of highs. These are the strains that are best looked out for because you can be guaranteed that the plant has got a grow
35 35 history behind it and that the seller of the seeds will know a good bit about the plant and how it works. This ends our brief look at the history of Cannabis. There is much more to it than just this and many other books that discuss the legal aspects of Marijuana go into great detail about the history of Marijuana. In fact the history of Marijuana is so interesting and deep that a dozen chapters here would not cover the vastness of this plant s background. HOW CANNABIS IS USED Whenever we hear the word Cannabis we think of the famous leaf shape like the one on this book s cover. Many magazines show joints being rolled thick with leaves. Leaves are in fact the lesser potent part of the plant next to the stem and the roots. The cannabis plant can be divided into 6 main sections (Fig 1.2.). Bud, Stem, Branches, Nodes, Leaves, and Main Cola.
36 36 Fig This is a picture by BigIslandBud. Each of the parts of the plant has been indicated. The 3 horizontal lines on the right show 3 Node levels of branching and where they occur.
37 37 The next thing to know is that plants have a gender. The genders are male and female and sometimes a mix gender called the hermaphrodite condition. Now listen to this closely. 1) The male plant is not used for smoking because it contains low levels of THC and does not taste very good, but it can get you high. 2) The female plant when pollinated does produce THC but produces also seeds which prevent larger quantities of bud from being produced. 3) A non-pollinated female (sinsemilla) plant will produce more flowering buds with no seeds and will produce higher quantities of THC than the male plant or a seeded female plant. The buds produce resin, which contain THC, and can drip down onto the leaves. When she is fully mature she should produce a very pleasing high depending on the grow method, the strain of plant and when it is harvested. To put it plainly, males can be smoked but
38 38 are not very good and are considered vastly inferior to the female plant. The female plant when pollinated produces seeds and can be smoked but is vastly inferior to a nonpollinated female plant (sinsemilla) that produces more bud. It should be the goal of every Cannabis user to grow non-pollinated female plants with big buds. The goal of a cannabis breeder is too produce quality seeds and plants. How both these things are done is what this book will help you to understand. At the end of the Cannabis plant s life cycle the plant is harvested. This means one of two things. The plant can be completely uprooted and treated (called a complete harvest) or the plant can be harvested a small bit and used again for a second flowering term (this is called re-veging (Figure 1.3.) and reflowering).
39 39 Figure A plant that is being re-veged. Picture by Vic High. When Cannabis is harvested the harvester concentrates on the best part of the plant, namely the top cola and the buds. The leaves are the last thing to worry about and the stem and roots are normally thrown away. There are many ways to harvest a plant and we will
40 40 explain it in detail, later. Once the grower has selected the parts they want, they then set about curing their harvest (Figure 1.4). Curing your harvest is important. It helps one to produce a finer product. After the curing has been done the grower can then choose how he/she wants to finally produce their smokable mix (figure 1.5). They can use the cured plant as it is and smoke it dry or they can produce hash or oils from the curing process. Figure This is a picture of some cured buds.
41 41 Figure This is the result of a good indoor harvest. Both Pictures by Kryptonite.
42 42 Figure This is a picture of an indoor garden from Kryptonite. SPECIES The next thing one should know about are the different types of Cannabis species. There are 3 main species of Cannabis plants. These are Sativa, Indica and Ruderalis. Each species
43 43 has its own group of strains which are many. Each species has different characteristics and each strain of each species has it s own special identity. Figure Picture of Sativa leaf by Slowhand. SATIVA: Height – Can grow tall. Averages anywhere between, 4-15 feet. Nodes – Has long internodes between branches, 3 inches to 6. Leaf – Pointy leaves with no markings or patterns.
44 44 Figure Indica Leaf picture by Kryptonite. INDICA: Height – Small plants. Averages anywhere between 6 inches – 4 feet. Nodes – Short internodes between branches. 3 inches and less. Leaf – Rounded leaves with marble like patterns.
45 45 Figure This is a picture of some Ruderalis from Sensi Seeds. RUDERERALIS: Height – Small plants. Averages anywhere between 6 inches and 4 feet. Nodes – very short internodes with much branching. Leaf – Small and thick.
46 46 THC Cannabis plants produce psychoactive ingredients called cannabinoids. The main ingredient of the cannabinoids that gives the high effect is called – delta 9 THC. All strains vary in THC levels that come in different percentages. Some plants may contain 100% THC but the “levels” of THC may be low. Other plants have only 60% THC, but the “levels” of THC may be very high. A good potent plant will have both levels and quantities very high. Plants produce something called – delta 8 THC. This ingredient is in low levels but does contribute to the high. When we mention THC levels, we are talking about both delta 8 and 9. There are also other ingredients that add to the high such as CBD, CBN, THCV, CBDV, CDC and CBL, but are only very minor compared to THC. The difference between THC levels and THC quantities is that THC levels are genetic. They are not under the influence of the grower. THC quantities on the other hand are. This is to do with bud mass and how much resin can be generated in that bud mass. Some bud may only
47 47 contain 20% THC, with a THC level of 5. The same plant grown under better conditions and light will produce 70% THC, with a THC level of 5. The 5 is genetic. The quantities of 20% and 70% are under the grower s control. When examining a strain in a seed-bank catalogue one is guided to check for the THC levels of that plant to understand how potent the plant is. Many seed sellers and breeders measure their plants THC levels and give accounts on how much THC their plants have. Of course many breeders like to exaggerate on how much THC their plants produce, but some do not. If you wish to know more about THC levels it is best to consult your seed-bank or breeder for details. No complete study of cannabinoids has been made public since this book s publication. This is because cross breeding produces so many different results that it is hard to keep track on what is happening. Some ‘old timer’ strains are still around and have been tested. This information can be obtained from the larger seed production companies in Holland. THC testing is also an expensive process that requires heavy amounts of research. The other
48 48 interesting factor is that some plants do not produce any THC at all. These plants have been genetically engineered (GM) to produce very low levels of THC and are mainly used by farmers in some countries who have permission to grow cannabis for hemp production ONLY. It is best to keep away from these seeds and strains. They will not get you high. There is project called the PMP (potency monitoring project) that is carried out by some government-funded agencies, but the results are questionable. ZERO ZERO The other thing that may interest you is that Cannabis can be cured in various forms and one of these popular forms is HASHISH (Figure 1.10).
49 49 Figure This is some raw hash extraction by Kryptonite. This hash should be pure without any additives.
50 50 Hashish can also be graded and one of the most famous grades of Hashish is called Zero Zero. Hashish making (Figure 1.11) can improve (but sometimes degrade) the overall potency of marijuana. The grades of Hashish are as follows. 00(zero zero), 0, 1, 2, 3. Zero Zero is by far the most purest form of Hashish on the market today and comes from plants that have high levels of THC in conjunction with a good Hash making technique. Sometimes the technique may be good but the levels of THC in the plant are low. This may produce a grade such as a 2 or a 3. It is wise to note that the Potency of a plant depends on a number of factors. It should be the goal of every grower to produce a potent, high grade, product. Zero Zero is also a ‘western’ concept derived from hash types that come from Morocco.
51 51 Figure This picture shows some hash being made. The powder-like substance is the collection of trichomes from the plant. This powder will eventually be solidified to make a bar of hash. Photograph by Chimera. RESIN Female plants produce resin glands (Figure 1.12 and 1.14). Some of these glands may have lots of resin but are not very potent. Other plants may have little resin but are very
52 52 potent. Optimal growth, is a plant that has lots of resin and is very potent. Resin glands are produced all over the female flower and new leaves. They can be seen clearly with the use of a magnifying aid. These resin glands are correctly called Trichomes. Figure This picture is a macro shot of some trichomes as they look on the plant. Notice the tip shape ball. This contains cannabinoids. Photograph by Joop Jumas.
53 53 Figure This flowering female is covered in Trichomes. That is what gives this bud her frosty look. Picture by Chimera.
54 54 Resin can be rubbed off the bud using the fingers and then rolled into the palms to create small balls of hand rubbed hashish. It is within these glands that one is to find the main concentration of produced cannabinoids and THC. When a plant is in full flowering the resin gland can explode or break dropping resin down onto the leaves below. This can also give the leaves their shiny frosty potent look during flowering. Towards the bottom of the plant are located the fan leaves. These leaves are generally large and collect most of the light for plant growth. Because these leaves are far away from the top of the plant, which produce the most amount of resin glands and buds, they collect the least amount of resin and are not very potent. It is best to consider separating these fan leaves from the rest of the plant during harvest because these leaves will not give you the best quality high.
55 55 Figure Trichomes Photograph by Joop Jumas. THE HIGH We should now have an idea as to what we are looking for in terms of a good quality smoke. We are looking for non-pollinated female plants that are flowering and producing lots of buds with resin glands that contain high levels and amounts of THC. We are also looking for plants that have been well cured and processed in a way that allows us to sample the full
56 56 flavour, smell and taste of the plant. One must also be aware that some plants are very potent and can literally knock one s socks off. This is where taste comes into play. Some people like plants that give a head high but do not cause one to fall asleep. Other people like plants that give a down effect and cause the body to become less responsive to stimuli. The body down is called The couch-lock effect. The head high is simply called The head high. Now another thing must be considered here. Remember that we talked about Species of Cannabis – Sativa, Indica and rudereralis? Well rudereralis is hardly used much today. Sativa and Indica are extremely common and these 2 species will be the main focus of this book. Also both species have two different forms of high. The high of each species can be controlled depending on the time at which you harvest. Not only this but the species can be crossed to produce Indica/Sativa type plants or Sativa/Indica type plants. This may sound all very confusing at first, but it is in fact all quite simple. We will explain more about this in our next chapter.
57 57 Chapter 2 SEEDS Figure Some cannabis seeds by Kryptonite. At the moment there are approximately 450 seed varieties of Cannabis on the market today. Out of the 450 seed varieties, 200 are worth looking at and out of the 200 varieties about 50 or so are outstanding. Each strain is either a pure species type (taking 2 plants of the same species and crossing them) or a crossbreed of two or more species (taking 2 plants from different species and crossing them). Out of the 450 seed varieties we said that
58 where good. This leaves 250 left. Those 250 are usually very unstable crossbreed strains. These complete hybrids plants are mixed so much that they can not be classified at either Sativa or Indica. They are classified in a different way that we will explain this in the strain format table below. Most hybrids do not last long on the market and are primarily found only among breeders who are experimenting with their plant s genetics. Seed producers tend to only produce the following strain categories. Some Hybrids can be excellent though! PURE SATIVA (This is a pure species) SATIVA (This is a mostly Sativa species with some Indica) PURE INDICA (This is a pure species) INDICA (This is a mostly Indica species with some Sativa) INDICA/SATIVA (This is a 50/50 cross between a Sativa and an Indica species)
59 59 They also produce: RUDERALIS (This is a pure species) And some other Ruderalis mixes. However ruderalis is a problematic plant. It does not produce large quantities of THC, nor does it flower like the other varieties. Ruderalis is considered sub-standard by most growers because it flowers according to age and does not flower according to the photoperiod. We will explain what the photoperiod is in a moment. Now remember that we said an Indica/Sativa cross would produce two different highs. Well we lied a little. If they are both 50%/50% crosses then the high will be a 50%/50% mix. Indica/Sativa and Sativa/Indica is really the same thing. Pure Sativa is a total Head High. Pure Indica is a total Body Stone/couch-lock. A 50/50 cross will give a 50% Head high and a 50% Body Stone. If an Indica plant is crossed slightly with a Sativa plant it will give a 60% Body Stone and a 40% Head High. A Sativa plant that is crossed slightly with an Indica plant will give a 60% Head High and a 40% Body Stone. The 60/40 ratio is most common
60 60 but some breeders can change that ratio. When choosing a seed, check to see if it is pure or if it has a ratio. Most seed sellers will have this listed along with their seed type. So when we look at some strains that are crossbreeds we must understand which species the plants are leaning towards. Along with the cross you can expect that the plant will look different. Some Sativa plants may be shorter because of the Indica breeding in them and some Indica plants may be taller because of the Sativa breeding in them. This is okay though because later on we will find that as a grower we have control over how a plant will look and grow. As a grower we can influence height and plant features. We can also harvest the plant in such a way that we can produce a different high type. The later you harvest the plant the more you will help induce a couch-lock effect. Harvesting just before peak will induce a cerebral high. If you are working with strains that are for either cerebral or couch-lock highs then you can harvest early or later and help induce some of these high type properties.
61 61 Figure This is a wonderful harvest picture by GIYO. Hopefully with the knowledge you have been given so far you are equipped to choose a plant that suits your needs in terms of height,
62 62 potency and high type. There is no point trying to grow an 8-foot Sativa Bush indoors if you do not have the space for it. 2 foot Indica plants outdoors may not survive if other plants compete with it for light. As a rule we can always shorten the plants lengths through pruning, but rarely can we double the plants height if the strain’s genes only allow the strain to grow 2 or 3 feet. Figure A small grow room by Mr.Zog.
63 63 HOW TO GET SEEDS The best way to get seeds is from a friend who has grown a type of plant that you enjoyed to smoke. This, by far, is the best way because, (1) You get the seeds for free and (2) you know what the high type will be because you have already tasted it. The next best way is the Internet. The Internet is full of seed-banks that wish to sell you seeds, but there are a few problems that you may encounter. The first problem is that some of these seed-banks will rip you off. The second is that some of these seed-banks do not ship worldwide. The third is that some of these seed-banks misrepresent their stock. The fourth is that seeds can be very expensive. Some seed-banks sell seeds anywhere between (US Dollars = $, UK Stirling = ) $80/ 70 and $300/ 290 for seeds. There are rip-off artists out there, but then again some of these seeds are worth the money because the strain is excellent in vigour and production. So how do we choose our seed-bank and how do we really know what seeds to pick?
64 64 CHOOSING A SEED-BANK As a rule if you find a classy seed-bank then you will find classy breeders using that seed-bank to sell their seeds. If you find a seed-bank then the first thing you should do is to examine what people have to say about that seed-bank. The best way to find this out is to check one of the more popular websites on the net like Some web sites give listings and ratings on seed-banks. You can also do a search on the net using a search engine like AltaVista or Yahoo. Find a good web site that is run by a number of people and not a web site that is run by one person. A community of users is a good place to go for message board forums and chat. Also check to see that the site has a registered URL, like a.com site. If they use a free web site service then consider staying clear of it because it can disappear without trace overnight. Once you have found a web site then run a search on ‘seeds’. A listing may appear of all known seed-banks that deal over the Internet. It is best then to check out the reviews on each
65 65 seed-bank by the public. A good one is This gives the latest update on each seed-bank and gives them a review out of 5. Find the URL of each seed-bank and check out the prices. Some seed-banks do deals on seeds and you will find that prices do change from bank to bank. The next thing you do before buying anything is to send the web master an e- mail. Ask him about his services, what seeds you like, how he delivers, security arrangement, and if he can deliver to your country. In some countries seeds are legal. In others they are not. Wait until he gives you a reply. If you do not get a reply then do not use that seed-bank. These people are salesmen and should communicate with you and answer all your questions. Also ask how the money should be sent and ask about postage and packaging. Most seed-banks sell their seeds in batches of This means that you will get seeds in the post. Anything can happen. A misplaced foot in the postal office can kill the seeds, making them not viable. Good seedbanks provide good packaging. Ask about it. If your seeds do not arrive send an to the seed-bank and ask them what happened. If they do not reply or if your seeds are lost
66 66 write them a complaint and then post that complaint in one of the web boards like yahooka.com. The more people complain the better the chances of indicating seed-banks that are ripping people off. Also if you get your seeds in good condition then it is always wise to post a good review of that seed-bank. This will also improve your communication with that seed-bank the next time you buy seeds (you may get discounts). If you do not have access to the web then you will have to get addresses for these seed-banks and send them a letter asking for further information. Some seed-banks have even advertised in the back of this book. WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN CHOOSING SEEDS Okay, so now you have an idea of what type of plant you want and the seed-bank that you are going to use. The next step is too check if the seeds are for indoor or outdoor use. There is a saying that all cannabis seeds can be grown indoors and outdoor. This is true, but that is not what the breeder had intended. If the breeder had created a plant that does well indoors then it is suggested that you only grow
67 67 these seeds indoors. If you grow outdoors and the plant does not produce that well, then you know that you should have followed the seedbanks advice. Next time take that advice. There is nothing stopping you from experimenting, and some growers have produced excellent results by putting outdoor seeds indoors or putting indoor seeds outdoors, but it is best if you follow the advice you are given, especially if you are new to growing. Figure Outdoor sativa.
68 68 Figure Indoor Sativa. Both of these pictures, figure 2.4 and 2.5, show a mostly sativa strain growing outdoors and indoors. As you can see this would probably be labelled an outdoor strain because of its size. The grower, mullummadman, has been able to grow it both ways though. You may also find that a number of similar strains have been produced by different breeders. When you look at the seed-bank list you may see 1-4 types of the same plant. What is going on here you ask? Well, let us take
69 69 Skunk#1 for example. Skunk#1 is a mostly sativa plant but there are about 7 breeders who have provided a certain seed-bank with these seeds. Each seed breeder tries to develop the best plant possible for that strain type. You will find that some breeders are good and others are not so good. Make sure that you check with the seed-bank to see which breeder’s strains are the best. Always choose the best. The reason for choosing the best is that later you can PRODUCE YOUR OWN SEED from that strain! Welcome to the wonderful world of Marijuana growing. Try and for seeds. The next thing to look for is flowering times. Each strain is a bit different on flowering times. In a nutshell flowering is the next cycle after your plant shows its sex. There are 3 main stages in plant growth. Germination, Vegetative growth and Flowering. It is towards the last days of flowering that you should begin your harvest. If the seed-bank says, Skunk#1 Flowering time: 7-9 weeks then you should be able to know roughly when your plant will be ready for harvest (in this case
70 70 it will 7-9 weeks from the time your plant starts to flower). Some plants have shorter flowering times and others have longer. This is a guide to help you understand how long it will take, after vegetative growth is complete, before you will have a chance to saviour your plant s delights. The last piece of advice is this. Always consult someone about your strain type. Who knows, they may be able to recommend something better. Or maybe even have a private seed stash of their own. Figure This is some Skunk#1 by Strawdog.
71 71 Figure Seeds enough to grow between 100 and 200 plants. Picture by Kryptonite.
72 72 Figure This is another great picture of some female bud by Kryptonite.
73 73 GROWING FACTORS This is important to bear in mind before you grow your weed. Have you got the time to take care of your plants? Are you going to be taking long holidays? Have you got someone you trust to take care of your plants? And if you do how secure is your grow area? How do the people you live with feel about this? Can you hide the smell when the plants start to flower? Are you prepared to pay money on lights and other grow items? Are you prepared to pay the costs of a higher electricity bill? Are people going to see your grow room? Are people going to walk past your grow site outdoors? Is the meter man going to see your grow room? Is the gas man going to see your grow room? Are you sure that you really want to do this?
74 74 Figure This is an example of how some outdoor plants can get really big and tall. Sometimes they can be hard to hide. Picture by Mullummadman. If you are negative on any of these points above then I suggest that you resolve those issues before you move on. The next thing I am going to tell you is the most important thing you will ever hear when growing marijuana. People have lived their whole lives growing cannabis and have never had an encounter with the law. It is so simple, but very hard to do. If you can do it then you are halfway to being an expert grower. Are you
75 75 ready for it?
76 76 NEVER TELL ANYONE THAT YOU ARE GROWING CANNABIS.
77 77 If you do this then you will never have a problem other than someone accidentally walking into your grow area. NEVER EVER TELL ANYONE ANYTHING, EVER. If you can do this then you will have more security than a castle equipped with guard-dogs henchmen and the works. Loose lips cause 99.9% of all security related issues being breached. 00.1% is caused because you did not take the time out to conceal your area well enough. Loose lips sink ships. If you plan to share your crop with your friends then do it by another means, like – Hey guys look what I just bought. The only people who should know that you grow are the people who live with you. If your husband/wife has loose lips, then maybe you should consider guerrilla growing outdoors (explained later.) Other than that, these are the most important factors you need to consider. Never grow at home if other people are not going to know about it. This is bad and always causes problems in the end. So what does that say? Growing on your own is the best way. Growing with other people is a problem unless you know they are okay with it. You will have to figure some of these things out for yourself.
78 78 The next factor is bugs and pests. Always, always have a bottle of pesticide that kills SPIDER MITES. Spider Mites can reduce your plants to garbage within a couple of days. NEVER EVER BRING A PLANT INSIDE THAT HAS BEEN OUTSIDE. People who have done this have managed to kill nearly every plant in their house because they brought a plant indoors that had spider mites. Marijuana plants are very vulnerable to mite attacks because the spider mites love to suck marijuana plants dry. They are tiny, about half the size of this dot —>>. I can not stress how important this is. We will talk more about pests later. The next thing we will talk about is what we expect our seeds to do before they become full flowering plants.
79 79 Figure This is example of what pest damage can do to your crop. Notice how the leaf has been eaten. Picture by Slowhand.
80 80 THE LIFE CYCLE OF THE MARIJUANA PLANT Figure Another wonderful bud shot from Chimera. We said before that a plant would grow in three main stages. Germination, Vegetative growth and flowering. Plants actually grow in 6 stages. Here is the life cycle of the cannabis
81 81 plant. Germination: This is the initial stage of growth and occurs when your seed s embryo cracks open and the seedling produces a root. This root fixes itself into the soil and pushes the newborn seeding up and over the soil surface. Following surface contact two embryonic leaves open outwards to receive sunlight, pushing the empty seed shell away from the seedling. It takes anywhere between 12 hours to 3 weeks for seeds to germinate. Once the plant has reached this stage it goes into the seedling stage. Figure This is a great picture of an Indica seedling by Strawdog.
82 82 Seedling Stage: After the first pair of embryonic leaves are receiving light (Figure 2.12), the plant will begin to produce another small set of new leaves. These leaves are different from the last and may have some Marijuana characteristics such as the three rounded finger shaped points. As the seedling grows more of these leaves are formed and bush upwards along with a stem. Some stems are very weak at this stage and need the support of a small thin wooden stake tied to the seedling with some fine thread. The seedling stage can last between 1 and 3 weeks. At the end of the seedling stage your plant will have maybe 4-8 new leaves. Some of the old bottom leaves may drop off.
83 83 Figure Here is a picture of a cannabis plant in vegetative growth. This picture is from GIYO. Vegetative Growth: The plant now begins to grow at the rate which its leaves can produce energy. At this stage the plant needs all the light and food it
84 84 can get. It will continue to grow upwards producing new leaves as it moves along (Figure 2.13). It will also produce a thicker stem with thicker branches and with more fingers on the leaves. It will eventually start to show its sex. When it does this it is time for the plant s pre-flowering stage. It can take anywhere between 1 and 5 months for the plant to hit this next stage. Pre-flowering: At this stage the plant slows down in developing its height and starts to produce more branches and nodes. The plant fills out in the pre-flowering stage. During this phase of the plant cycle your plant will start to show a calyx which appears where the branches meet the stem (nodes). Pre-flowering can take anywhere between 1 day to 2 weeks. (See last page of this book for pre-flowering/calyx illustration)
85 85 Figure This is a great picture of a flowering plant. It should be indicated here that this plant is a female. Picture by GIYO.
86 86 Flowering: During this stage the plant continues to fill out. The plant will show its sex clearly. The male plant produces little balls that are clustered together like grapes. The female plant produces little white/cream pistils that look like hairs in a pod. Each of the plants will continue to fill out more and their flowers will continue to grow. It can take anywhere between 4 to 16 weeks for the plant to fully develop its flowers (Figure 2.14). During this time the male s pollen sacks would have burst spreading pollen to the female flowers.
87 87 Figure Seeded bud picture by Shecky Greene.
88 88 Seed: The female plant will produce seeds at this point if she has received viable pollen from a male plant. The seeds grow within the female bud and can take anywhere between 2 weeks to 16 weeks, to grow to full maturity. The female pistils may change colour before finally bursting the seedpods, sending them to the soil below. (Breeders like to collect their seed before the seedpods burst.) These are the six stages of the life cycle of a cannabis plant. It is important to know that if the males are separated from the females and killed off then the females will not become pollinated. Let us go back a step and describe what happens here.
89 89 FLOWERING NON-POLLINATED FEMALES (SINSEMILLA CROP) Figure This is some bud by Gyro. The picture is upside down because it is freshly harvested bud strung up.
90 90 During this stage the plant continues to fill out. The plant will show its sex more clearly. The female plant produces little creamy/white pistils. The plant will continue to fill out more and its flowers will continue to grow. It can take anywhere between 4 and 16 weeks for the plants to fully develop. During this time though there are no males to pollinate the female plants. The buds will grow larger and develop more resin glands. Resin may drop down onto the leaves and the plant becomes very sticky. The hairs on the buds begin to get thicker and cluster into balls. The reason for the high increase in bud growth is that the female plant is trying her best to attract male pollen. Towards the last days of flowering the pistils will change colour showing that the plant is ready for harvest. CYCLE TIMES Given the above data it can take anywhere between 10 weeks and 36 weeks for a plant to grow to maturity. That is, again, anywhere between 2.5 months to 9 months. The most common grow time is 3 to 4 months. All this is
2 THE CANNABIS GROW BIBLE Copyright 2001, Greg Green All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
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What is a Cat Whisperer?
Similar to a horse or dog whisperer, a Cat Whisperer is a person who relates particularly well with cats. A Cat Whisperer has unusual luck and success with cats. Often people bring cats or a single cat will just “show up” at their home. This cat will adopt the whisperer.
For myself, I’ve had Persians and black cats mostly, show up and move in. Sometimes, the cat’s people moved and abandoned the cat. Other times, the cat just decided it liked it better at my house.
Some say that a Cat Whisperer is a cat therapist, but in truth, most Cat Whisperers are good cat behaviorist. Most Cat Whisperers have never had any formal training, and come by it naturally. They understand a cat’s way of thinking and work with its existing behaviors to achieve the desired results.
Some cats that have been abused will only respond to a Cat Whisperer. Other people may try to help the cat and only see a scared cat with a long memory of abuse and hurt. These cats often tragically end up in kill shelters. It is tragic because the cats have already endured so much. Many of these poor cats were once loved and coddled pets. They were abandoned, mistreated by children or cruel adults, terrorized by dogs and possibly even tortured.
When a cat is this badly damaged emotionally and physically, it takes great patience and care to bring the poor cat back to some semblance of normalcy around people.
About the author:
A cat lover and trainer invites you to a world of cats. A website dedicated to making the relationship between cats and people harmonious and healthy, For the Love of Cats is a place for people facing difficulties in their relationships with cats to come and find the answers they need and can trust.
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Problems That Aging Cats are Susceptible to
It is a given that a cat ages more rapidly than what humans do. Some veterinarians will tell you that a one-year old cat is equivalent to a 16-year old child, although I think this is extreme. The different schools of thoughts propounded by vets and feline experts will tell you that the ratio is anywhere from 4 to 7:1 when it comes to comparing the aging process of a feline to that of a human. Despite the difficulty in predicting an exact age, most vets and experts consider a feline to be “geriatric” once it is 10 years old.
Cats are now living longer than ever before with the average age of a house cat that has been well cared for being around 15 years of age. Additionally, cats that have been neutered or spayed tend to live longer than those that have not been. The speculation here is that cats that have not been “fixed” tend to roam around a lot more and are there prone to even fatal injuries. It also holds true that they succumb to diseases and health maladies because of exposure to the outside environment.
Felines are amazing pieces of machinery, so to speak, in that they have the capability of repairing themselves. For instance, despite the fact that they have two kidneys, they only need a part of one of them in order to stay healthy. Eventually, the aging process in cats takes its toll on them, just like it does with us, and therefore they experience those bodily changes that are characteristically associated with getting older.
The bottom line here is that the key elements of exercise, health care, and proper nutrition, combined with the special care they need once they have entered their “golden years,” will affect your cat’s life expectancy positively. The following list, though quite lengthy, are the more common conditions and problems that older cats may eventually face and that you as an owner will have to deal with when they arise:
* Arthritis and stiff joints
* Blood pressure problems
* Bone brittleness and weakness
* Breathing issues resulting from less flexibility of the lung muscles
* Decreased brain cell count
* Decreased control of body temperature
* Decreased functions of the kidneys and liver
* Decreased intestinal and stomach functions which oftentimes lead to impaired digestive processes
* Decreased production of saliva and difficulties in swallowing
* Decreased sensitivity to all the senses excluding touch
* Dehydration resulting from a decreased sensitivity to thirst
* Greater occurrence of infection due to increased susceptibility
* Increased bone brittleness
* Mouth ulcers
* Muscle dysfunction and weakness
* Periodontal conditions and tooth loss
* Shallower sleeping patterns which leads to irritability and temperament issues
* Skin abnormalities such as abnormally brittle or misshaped claws, alopecia, and dullness of the coat
From the time they are kittens, cats need to be provided with four critical elements in order to enter their golden years in the best possible shape – an appropriate amount of regular exercise, good health care, proper nutrition, and a stimulating lifestyle.
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The battle between cats & dogs has been waged since the dawn of time. Seemingly opposites, cats & dogs can be seen as metaphors for the two sides of our own psyche.
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Homemade Kitten Food
Do you need a cheap, healthy alternative to store bought kitten food to help wean your kittens off their mother’s milk and transition them to traditional canned kitten food? More than likely, they have shown little interest in regular canned food, preferring the milk to anything you might put in their bowl. Dry food will also be too hard on their developing teeth. The best option would be to start them on a food that reminds them of what they prefer, but can be mixed with traditional wet food to help transition them over. This recipe is simple to make, and kittens find it delicious.
Bring 1 1/2 cups of water to a boil, then remove the pan from the heat and mix in one envelope of unflavored gelatin. Be sure to mix thoroughly, and do not boil the gelatin. If the water tastes bad or has a heavy chlorine taste when it comes out of the tap, consider using filtered water instead.
Pour this mixture into a blender along with half of a 12 ounce can of goat’s milk. Blend just long enough to combine thoroughly. Do not substitute cow’s milk because cats tend to be lactose intolerant. Using cow’s milk can lead to discomfort, diarrhea, and worse if fed to kittens.
Add the following ingredients one at a time. After each addition, blend briefly to combine before moving on to the next. You will want to use the lowest setting to avoid overmixing. Add: 3 tbsp full fat yogurt, 3 tbsp real mayonnaise, 3 tsp light corn syrup, and 1 raw egg yolk. Concerning the egg yolk, raw eggs carry a small risk of salmonella poisoning. To eliminate any risk of accidentally passing this on to your kittens, use eggs that have been pasteurized in their shells.
You can serve the completed homemade kitten food the way it is, or you can store it for use later. To store for later usage, cover the mixture tightly in a small container. You can store it in the refrigerator for up to ten days or in your freezer for up to three months.
If you are going to use food that you have prepared in advance, you will want to warm it up before serving, especially if it is coming from the refrigerator or freezer. Cold food causes severe stomach upset in kittens. Warming it up will also make it more aromatic, and thus more appetizing to the kittens.
How to Litter Train A Kitten
If the mother cat is still in the home and she is already litter trained, then litter training her kittens is a natural process. Her kittens will simply follow what she does. However, ultimately, each cat should have its own litter tray or else it may create a host of other litter tray problems for you!
For most kitten owners, the mother cat is not in the home if the kitten was orphaned or purchased. But this is not a problem. It is easy to litter train a cat when it’s still a little kitten. Cats are creatures of habit and it may not be as easy to litter train once they have become used to their favorite toilet spots.
The key to litter training a kitten is to let it get used to the litter tray as soon as possible. You will need to manually place your kitten onto the tray initially, as it is neither used to it nor is it able to climb over the edge to get in.
Most kittens would defecate soon after waking up and after a meal. You could place your kitten in the litter tray during these times and after a few weeks, your kitten would get used to the routine and it would become a habit.
Just be sure to place the litter tray a reasonable distance away from where the kitten is fed and where it sleeps. Cats and kittens are fastidious creatures and do not like to do their toilet near where they eat and sleep.
When a kitten is still very young, it will not be able to “cover up” very well after its toilet, as most adult cats are capable of. But you don’t have to worry about this. Once they are about 1 to 2 months old, they will instinctively know how to cover up their poop.
In the wild or in the garden, cats will scoop soil and earth to cover but in the home, if you provide commercial cat litter, they will naturally scoop the litter to cover up the poop. You will notice, even if you only provide a newspaper for their soiling, your kitten will still scoop at the newspaper in an instinctive act to cover up their poop.
Although you can expect to pick up poop after your kitten in the first few weeks, litter training a kitten is relatively easy and can be 100% trouble-free once it gets used to the routine of using the litter tray.
New Kitten Care – How to Kitten-proof Your Home
A very important aspect of new kitten care is keeping your kitten safe from danger. There are a lot of potential hazards round the home for little kittens. This article lists the most common ones and suggests ways you can minimize risks to your kitten and keep her safe.
Washing machine and tumble dryer:
If you leave the door open and there are clothes inside, there’s a good chance your kitten will climb in and go to sleep. Always check your kitten isn’t inside these before you use them.
Fridge and freezer:
As soon as you’ve used these, shut the door.
Hob and oven:
Shut the oven door as soon as you’ve finished with it. Cover hot hob plates.
Keep it out of reach – it can give your kitten food poisoning.
Put all garbage in a sealed bin that your kitten can’t access.
Many plants are poisonous to cats. If you’re not sure whether a certain plant is safe for your kitten if she eats it, put it out of her reach.
The oils used to scent this can be poisonous.
Open fires and candles:
Use a guard on the fire. Never leave a kitten in a room alone with lit candles.
If your kitten is a wire chewer, you’ll need to put wires out of her reach or buy plastic covers for them.
Curtain tie-backs and cords on window blinds:
Kittens can get caught in these. Either remove them completely or tie them up out of reach.
Filled bathtubs and sinks:
Make sure your kitten doesn’t have access to the room when the tub or sink is full.
Try to get into the habit of keeping the lid down when the toilet’s not in use.
Keep them in a cupboard that your kitten can’t get into.
Kittens can swallow small things like paper clips, rubber bands, staples and needles.
String, wool, fishing line and thread:
Kittens can swallow large quantities of these. For this reason, balls of wool or string and pom-poms aren’t good toys for cats.
Most cleaners etc. are highly poisonous to cats and need to be kept somewhere your kitten can’t access.
Tobacco, nicotine patches and nicotine gum are all poisonous to cats.
Reclining chairs, futons, folding beds, drawers:
If kittens get caught when this type of furniture is moved, they can get crushed. Make sure your kitten isn’t asleep somewhere she could get trapped before you use any of these.
Safety is a major factor for new kitten care. It’s fairly easy to keep your kitten safe as long as you anticipate potential dangers and take the necessary steps to prevent them. Putting brightly colored post it notes up around your home is a good way to do this. Stick the notes on or near potential dangers – for example the fridge, washing machine, oven, toilet and futon – and anywhere else that could be a hazard.
Kitten Feeding with a Bottle
Kitten feeding can feel like a difficult process without a mother cat to do it for you. Newborn kittens are so tiny and fragile, and have to operate almost entirely by instinct. It may seem a daunting task at first, but the process of kitten feeding with a bottle is not so much from that of feeding a newborn human. Once they know what to do, they will do it all on their own. All you have to do is show them proper care and follow a few simple guidelines.
Step 1 Make up the bottle of formula. To do this, first sterilize the bottle and nipple in boiling water for several minutes and allow to cool thoroughly before adding the KMR (kitten milk replacement) formula. KMR is specifically formulated for kittens, and cow’s milk is not an adequate replacement. To avoid clumping, add just a little bit of water to the powdered mix and stir until thoroughly combined before adding the rest of the hot water. The final temperature of the formula should be about 95 degrees. If the bottle gets cold, just warm it up in a small bowl of very warm water, but always check the temperature before offering it to the kitten.
Step 2 Prepare the kitten. Place a warm, soft towel either on your lap or on the feeding surface, then place the kitten gently on top of it. When feeding newborn kittens, they will need to be lying flat on their stomachs. It is best if you can do this with the kitten gently cuddled against you, because you need to be sure that the kitten is warm before feeding. Cold kittens do not digest their formula well.
Step 3 Feed the kitten. Gently work the nipple against the kitten’s mouth. They will get the idea quickly and take it in. If not, very gently stroke the kitten until it gets the idea. You will need to do this six to ten times per day, around the clock, just like a newborn human. Newborn kittens will need a little over one ounce of formula per day, divided between feedings. Be careful to not overfeed them.
Step 4 Clean up and burp the kitten. While the kitten is still on the blanket, gently slip one hand under its belly and hold it while you very lightly pat its upper back. This will stimulate the burp response. Then, using a warm, damp, slightly rough cloth, gently clean its anal and genital area to stimulate urination and defecation.
Step 5 Put the kitten back to bed. It is worn out from its feeding and needs to rest.
Getting Ready for the Newborn Kittens
Caring for your cat during pregnancy may require a lot of time and effort in your part but it is a very wonderful and rewarding experience. But after the kittens are already born, you will need to do a different task and that is to take care of the newborn kittens. These kittens will need special kind of attention and care and you must make sure that you could provide it to them.
One good way to start is to prepare your home for the arrival of the newborn kittens. Kittens tend to play with, chew, or nibble anything that attracts their interest like plants, cords, and other materials. You should remove the things that could be harmful to the newborn kittens like anything that could poison them or hurt them. Electrical cords must be kept out of reach. Look for anything sharp and pointed and remove them from the area immediately. Deal with anything that could strangle your kitten like ropes, ribbons, and cords to provide a safer place for your kittens.
You might also want to save your curtains and drapes from kitten scratches so it would be advisable to tie them up so your kittens will not be able to reach them. Make sure that the cabinet for your cleaning liquids are out of your kittensâ€™ reach. Most of these cleaning liquids are poisonous and you wouldn’t want your kitty to play with them to prevent any kind of accident.
Another good preparation that you should not forget is to shop for things that your kitten will need. You will have to shop for foods that are suitable for newborn kittens. You should opt for foods that could give your kittens the kind of nutrition they need for growth. The food should also be easily digestible by kittens to prevent any troubles with their tummy.
You should also get them the things they need like their own bowls, kitty basket or bed, blanket, litter box, and toys. This is to ensure that your kittens will be comfortable and that they will have a good playing time. You should provide them with warm and comfortable place or area to sleep in. When choosing toys for your little kittens, make sure that they are safe and will not put the safety of your kittens at risk.
Lastly, you must make sure that your kittens are healthy. After birth, you could have a vet take a look at them to check them up for any illness and to give them vaccines that they need. If your vet saw some signs and symptoms that suggest illness, your kitten might be subjected to some tests and examinations. This is to ensure that they will grow healthy and will reduce the risk of getting sick. These things will help prepare you and your home for the arrival of your catâ€™s newborn kittens. You will not have to get worried about their safety inside your home and you can be sure that you will able to provide them with anything they need for them to grow happy and healthy.
Vaccinations for Your Kitten:
Here’s an explanation of the vaccines you need or may want to consider for your kitten
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