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Marijuana

Weed, pot, Mary Jane, ganja, bud – what do these terms have in common? They’re all slang names for marijuana.

What is marijuana?

Marijuana is the product of the dry, shredded flowers, stems, seeds, and leaves of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa or Cannabis Indica. All forms of marijuana contain the mind-altering chemical “THC” (short for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) which is the main ingredient. There are also as many as 400 other chemicals in marijuana, including cannabadiol (CBD), which is responsible for some of marijuana’s beneficial effects.

How potent (strong) is marijuana today?

The amount of THC in the plant has a lot to do with how strong or potent the marijuana is. The more THC, the stronger the marijuana. Today’s leaf marijuana has a much higher concentration of THC than ever before. While low concentrations of THC (2-4%) might have a relaxing effect, high concentrations (12% or higher) can have the opposite effect and may cause people to feel agitated, paranoid, anxious, and it can even cause hallucinations.

Other important things to know: the amount of THC in marijuana can be different depending on the type of plant, which part of the plant is being used, where it was grown and prepared, and finally, how it is stored. Marijuana is typically smoked as a “joint” (cigarette), a “blunt” (hollowed out cigar made of tobacco leaves), in a pipe, or a bong. Marijuana, or concentrated THC extracts or oils, can also be vaporized and inhaled (“vaped”), mixed into foods, or brewed as a tea.

The strongest forms of the marijuana plant are: Vaping “pods”, sinsemilla, hashish and hash oil and other cannabis extracts.

eCigarettes have become very popular among youth during the past 1-2 years. As more states have legalized “medical marijuana” and recreational use of marijuana, vaping cartridges or “pods” containing very high concentrations of THC have become available for sale to adults. However, they inevitably find their way into the hands of youth as well. These have been associated with a recent rash of severe chemical pneumonias resulting in acute respiratory failure and some deaths across the U.S.

Sinsemilla – is made from the female marijuana plant and does not have seeds, yet it has a high concentration of THC. Sinsemilla contains about 10-30% of THC.

Hashish – is made from the resin of the marijuana plant and is one of the strongest parts of the plant. Hashish contains about 10-20% of THC.

Hash oil – extracts are the most potent (strongest) part of the plant. Super strong hash oil extracts are also called “wax,” “dabs,” “budder,” “crumble,” and “shatter.” These are made by removing THC from the marijuana plant in an oil form. Hash oil extracts are extremely potent and according to a recent research study, they may contain as much as 80-90% of THC.

What happens when someone smokes marijuana?

When someone smokes marijuana, the THC travels through the lungs and into the bloodstream. When it reaches the brain, THC connects with the nerve cells that affect memory, concentration, perception, mood, and pleasure through the brain’s reward pathway. This is what is called a “high”. Powerful memories of intense high are implanted into the amygdala, part of the brain’s limbic or “survival” system, which can cause intense drug cravings for months, years or even for the rest of your life.

Within a few minutes of smoking, a person may experience a combination of the following:

  • Dry mouth
  • Loss of coordination and sense of balance
  • Feeling giggly and laughing a lot
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Feeling relaxed
  • Trouble thinking or concentrating/slowed reaction time
  • Red/bloodshot eyes
  • Increased heart rate and blood pressure
  • Increased appetite
  • Acute anxiety/paranoia

The way marijuana affects a person depends on how strong the THC content is, how it is being used, whether alcohol and/or other drugs are being taken at the same time, as well as a person’s reaction to it.

Keep in mind that other drugs can be mixed in with the marijuana without the user knowing beforehand. If there are other drugs mixed in, the effects may be more intense.

Are there other effects I should know about?

Yes. Because the chemical THC directly affects the brain, marijuana can cause problems that can last for days, or even weeks, including:

  • Trouble thinking/concentrating
  • Short-term memory loss
  • Distorted perception (sensing things in an abnormal way)

THC also upsets coordination, balance, posture, and reaction time. This can lead to problems while playing sports and doing activities that require your full attention and quick thinking, such as driving.

Research studies have shown that drivers with THC in their bloodstream were about twice more likely to be responsible for a fatal crash than drivers who had not used alcohol or drugs. Drivers with high levels of THC in their blood were 3-7 times more likely to be the responsible party in a car crash involving others.

THC can harm the developing brain of a fetus (unborn child) if a pregnant woman uses any form of marijuana. THC also passes through breastmilk and can be harmful to an infant.

Researchers have reported cases of “cannabis hyperemesis syndrome” in some people who use marijuana regularly. Symptoms include severe vomiting and stomach pain which usually stops when the person stops using marijuana altogether.

Long-term marijuana use can have many negative effects as well.

  • Brain development: When marijuana is used beginning in adolescence, people may have lasting changes to connections in the brain related to thinking, memory, and learning.
  • Mental health problems: Studies have shown that people who use marijuana on a regular basis have an increased risk of schizophrenia. Marijuana use has also been linked to mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, and suicidal thinking.
  • Respiratory problems: Marijuana smokers can develop many of the same breathing problems as people who smoke cigarettes. These problems include daily coughing, wheezing, more frequent chest illness, and an increased risk of lung infections such as pneumonia.
  • Heart problems: Researchers have found that there seems to be a connection between heart attacks and strokes caused by marijuana use. Marijuana use has also been associated with an increased risk of death among people who have already had a heart attack.
  • Social problems: Marijuana use, particularly when started in adolescence and when heavy, is associated with lower academic and career success, relationship problems, and lower life satisfaction.

Is marijuana addictive?

You may have heard that you can’t become addicted (otherwise known as dependent) to marijuana, but that’s not true. People think this because marijuana withdrawal symptoms are more subtle than the dramatic “drug sick” withdrawal symptoms seen in opioid dependence. Marijuana withdrawal symptoms include mood and sleep problems, irritability, low stress tolerance, restlessness, and lack of pleasure. Dependence on marijuana is also called “marijuana use disorder.” When people use marijuana over a long period of time and try to stop, they find life without marijuana to be too difficult. In fact, it’s estimated that 1 in 6 people who start using marijuana in their teens will become addicted to it. People who are addicted or dependent on marijuana have similar withdrawal symptoms as those who are addicted to nicotine. Withdrawal symptoms can last for months after stopping marijuana use completely.

If using marijuana can harm you, why do people do it?

Even though research shows that there are many negative effects from using marijuana, some people choose to use it anyway. This may be because of the effects such as relaxation and euphoria (intense happiness) that they feel while using it. The truth is that even though something may feel good, it doesn’t mean it’s good for you.

Reasons people use marijuana may include:

  • Feeling social pressure because many of their friends (or siblings) are using it.
  • Using it as an escape from problems in their lives (family, school, etc.)
  • Thinking it’s cool because they hear popular songs about it, and see it used by actors in the movies and on TV

I’ve heard that marijuana can be used as medicine – is that true?

The FDA (Federal Food and Drug Administration) has approved pills that contain THC for cancer patients (who have nausea and vomiting) and for patients diagnosed with AIDS (who have a low weight and/or no appetite). Research is being done to find out other possible uses and forms of THC and other cannabinoids (chemicals from the cannabis plant that act on a certain type of receptor in the brain). A person must have a prescription to get it. Companies that make certain medicines are working to develop safe, standardized medications with the Cannabidiol (CBD) compound.

I’ve heard a lot about marijuana on the news. What are the legal issues involved?

Thirty-three states have legalized “Medical Marijuana” for people with certain chronic, debilitating conditions such as cancer, HIV and multiple sclerosis. To purchase it, you must have a doctor’s certificate. Twenty-seven states have decriminalized marijuana possession (small amounts) and 10 states have legalized recreational use of marijuana for adults aged 20-years and older. It remains illegal for those under age 21 in all 50 states.

The consequences vary, but usually include:

  • Paying a fine
  • Jail time
  • A criminal record (which can hurt your plans for college and employment)

What about drug testing?

Many employers test for drug use during the hiring process, and some have ongoing random drug screening. Marijuana users may not be able to get a job because of their drug use, or they may lose their job if a test comes back positive. The same is true of sports teams. If you test positive for marijuana, you might not be able to play, or you could get cut from your team and have to pay a fine. A urine test may be positive for days to weeks after marijuana use. How long depends on how often a person had been using the drug prior to the test.

How do I know if I have a problem with marijuana use?

Some signs that you may have a problem with or be addicted to marijuana include:

  • You can’t control the urge to use it
  • You use it before school and other activities
  • You drive while high
  • You specifically seek out people who use marijuana and place yourself in situations where it will be available
  • You continue using marijuana even if it has a negative effect on your schoolwork, relationships, sports, or other activities

How can I quit using marijuana?

If you want to quit using marijuana, the most important thing to do is speak with a trusted adult who can assist you so you get the help you need. There are treatment programs that focus on counseling and group support, and there are programs designed especially for teens. Ask your health care provider for a referral.

Center for Young Women’s Health Parents Clinicians About Us Donate Marijuana Weed, pot, Mary Jane, ganja, bud – what do these terms have in common? They’re all slang

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ADOLESCENT MARIJUANA USE AND ASSOCIATED PSYCHOSOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS

Abstract

Marijuana use in adolescents is associated with many adverse outcomes, including neurobiological and health consequences. Despite this, little is known about gender differences in the correlates of adolescent marijuana use. This study attempted to fill this gap by examining gender differences in the correlates of lifetime and past 30-day marijuana use. Data from a cross-sectional statewide survey of adolescent risk behavior participation in Connecticut were analyzed using chi-square and hierarchical logistic regression methodologies to examine the demographic, psychosocial and risk behavior correlates of adolescent marijuana use. Gender-by-trait interactions were tested with hierarchical logistic regression. Of the 4523 participants (51.8% female, 75.8% Caucasian), 40.4% endorsed lifetime marijuana use and 24.5% endorsed past 30-day marijuana use. Risk behavior participation, particularly other substance use, had the most robust associations with lifetime and past 30-day adolescent marijuana use; participation in extracurricular activities appeared protective. Gender interactions were observed for African-American, Asian or other race and participation in extracurricular activities; in these three cases, males had a greater likelihood of use. They were also observed for having a job (lifetime use only), with females having elevated odds, and past 30-day cigarette smoking (past 30-day use only), with males having elevated odds. Finally, there was preliminary evidence of a faster transition from initiation of marijuana use to regular use in females, as compared to males. These results indicate important gender differences in the correlates of marijuana use in adolescents, and these findings may facilitate the development of gender-informed prevention and early intervention programs for adolescent marijuana use.

1. Introduction

Marijuana use among adolescents is recognized as a significant public health problem, with evidence indicating that its use produces significant neurobiological, psychosocial and health consequences (Bray, Zarkin, Ringwalt, & Qi, 2000; Georgiades & Boyle, 2007; Harvey, Sellman, Porter, & Frampton, 2007; Schneider, 2008). Estimates from two nationwide surveys, the Monitoring the Future (MTF) Surveys and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), indicate that the prevalence of marijuana use among adolescents is exceeded only by the prevalence of alcohol or tobacco use (Johnston, O’Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2008; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2008). While use rates have declined since the late 1990s, data from the MTF indicated that nearly 42% of high school seniors had used marijuana at some point in their lives, with over 30% using in the past year and nearly 20% in the past month (Johnston, et al., 2008).

Given the relatively high rates of use, the risks associated with marijuana use by adolescents are particularly alarming. Adolescents who use marijuana regularly or heavily have higher levels of anxiety (Dorard, Berthoz, Phan, Corcos, & Bungener, 2008), depressive symptoms (Medina, Nagel, Park, McQueeny, & Tapert, 2007), suicidality (Pedersen, 2008) and externalizing behavior (Monshouwer, et al., 2006) than non-users. Marijuana use is also associated with an increased risk of developing psychotic symptoms in a dose-dependent fashion (Di Forti, Morrison, Butt, & Murray, 2007; Moore, et al., 2007) and with an increased chance of the later development of depressive, bipolar, or anxiety diagnoses (Wittchen, et al., 2007). Tobacco use (Georgiades & Boyle, 2007), nicotine dependence (Patton, Coffey, Carlin, Sawyer, & Lynskey, 2005) and other substance use diagnoses (Wittchen, et al., 2007) have been associated with adolescent marijuana use, and it may mediate the progression to heavier (e.g., cocaine) substance use (Fergusson, Boden, & Horwood, 2008), though this is not universally found (Tarter, Vanyukov, Kirisci, Reynolds, & Clark, 2006).

Furthermore, heavier levels of marijuana use are associated with poorer sleep (Bolla, et al., 2008), respiratory problems (Aldington, et al., 2007; Brook, Stimmel, Zhang, & Brook, 2008), cancer (Berthiller, et al., 2008) and a host of neurocognitive deficits, including attentional, learning, memory and intellectual functioning decrements (Brook, et al., 2008; Di Forti, et al., 2007; Fried, Watkinson, James, & Gray, 2002; Harvey, et al., 2007). Finally, regular adolescent marijuana use is associated with poorer school performance (Brook, et al., 2008; Leatherdale, Hammond, & Ahmed, 2008), deviant peer affiliation (Reboussin, Hubbard, & Ialongo, 2007) and school drop-out (Bray, et al., 2000). The adverse profile associated with adolescent marijuana use is compounded by indications that use of marijuana persists into young adulthood and beyond for most adolescent users (Patton, et al., 2007; Perkonigg, et al., 2008). Together, the data indicate that understanding the characteristics of adolescent marijuana users is an important research and public health goal; such an understanding could be used to target at-risk individuals through prevention programs or early intervention.

One way to further this goal is to examine potential gender differences among adolescent marijuana users. Traditionally, female substance use and differences between male and female substance users have been understudied. Recent research has strongly indicated that male and female substance use are potentially different phenomena, with different motivations, use trajectories, consequences, barriers to treatment and patterns of relapse to substance use following abstinence (Brady & Randall, 1999; Walitzer & Dearing, 2006). Examination of gender differences in adolescent marijuana use is a particularly understudied area, underscoring the need for further investigations. Indeed, initial work indicates that male and female adolescents differ in terms of their use rates, trajectories and psychosocial correlates, among users.

For instance, males appear to be more likely to use marijuana, with the MTF indicating past year use among 29% of males and 24% of females; the NSDUH indicated that 17% of adolescent males and 15% of females had used marijuana over their lifetime (Johnston, et al., 2008; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2008). Kandel and Chen (Kandel & Chen, 2000) found an earlier age of onset of marijuana use for males and found that males were more likely to be on a heavier use trajectory; it also appears the risk factors for the onset of marijuana use differ somewhat by gender (Guxens, Nebot, & Ariza, 2007). Furthermore, males appear to be more likely than females to become marijuana dependent in the first few years following initiation (Wagner & Anthony, 2007). Finally, Ridenour and collaborators (Ridenour, Lanza, Donny, & Clark, 2006) found that females tended to have shorter, but non-significant, intervals between onset of marijuana use and either first problem or cannabis dependence.

Few studies, however, have examined current users to evaluate potential gender differences in demographic or psychosocial characteristics in current adolescent users of marijuana. Pedersen and colleagues (Pedersen, Mastekaasa, & Wichstrom, 2001) examined the effects at 13 and 14 years of age of conduct problems on the initiation of marijuana use over an 18 month follow-up period. They found that baseline conduct problems promoted the likelihood of marijuana use initiation over the follow-up, with an especially pronounced effect in females. Furthermore, the type of conduct problems evidenced was important: for males, serious conduct problems were stronger promoters of initiation, but in females, covert or aggressive conduct problems were more robust.

Arguably, the most comprehensive study of gender differences in the correlates of adolescent marijuana use was conducted by Tu and collaborators (Tu, Ratner, & Johnson, 2008). They examined a sample of 8225 Canadian secondary school students participating in a cross-sectional survey. The authors found three gender differences: one, grade level in school was predictive of male frequent marijuana use (defined as 3 to 9 episodes of use in the previous 30 days), but not of frequent use by females; two, self-reported poor mental health increased the likelihood of either frequent or heavy use (10 or more episodes in the past 30 days) among females, but not among males; and three, Aboriginal ethnicity was associated with frequent or heavy use among males, but not females. It should be noted, however, that the authors did not test gender-based interactions, instead only noting when a factor was a significant main effect correlate in just one gender but not the other. While this method may identify particularly robust predictors, it is not as statistically powerful as testing for interactions with gender, assuming the implicit assumptions of testing for interactions are met.

Thus, this study attempted to further examine the gender-related correlates of current marijuana use through the use of a survey of high-risk behavior participation in Connecticut high school students. The correlates of lifetime and past month marijuana use were evaluated separately by gender and then evaluated for potential differences by gender (i.e., gender-by-correlate interactions) using chi-square and regression analyses. There were two primary aims of this study: one, to evaluate which demographic, psychosocial and risk behavior characteristics are associated with past month or lifetime marijuana use, separately for males and females; and two, to evaluate whether gender differences exist in the odds of marijuana use associated with the selected correlates. We hypothesized that adverse measures of health and functioning would be associated with marijuana use in both boys and girls. While gender differences were expected in the strengths of the associations, given the lack of prior research, a priori hypotheses were not made about the nature and direction of these gender-related differences in the associations with marijuana use. Based on data indicating a more rapid progression from initial use to problematic use of abused substances in females as compared to males, we additionally hypothesized that girls would demonstrate a more rapid transition from initial to regular use of marijuana.

2. Methods

The procedures and sampling design of this survey have been described in detail in Schepis et al. (2008); for further information, please refer there.

2.1 Study Procedures

All public high schools in Connecticut were invited to participate in the survey. To encourage participation, schools were offered a brief report detailing the prevalence of each risk behavior assessed. With participating schools, a passive consent procedure was developed. This procedure involved mailing letters to parents of all students in the school to inform them about the study and outline the procedure to deny permission for their child to take part in the study. In cases where a parent did not make contact to deny permission, permission was assumed. Prior to survey administration, a list of students who were denied permission to participate was compiled; those students were asked to quietly complete schoolwork while the survey was administered. All procedures were approved by the participating schools and the Institutional Review Board of the Yale University School of Medicine.

On the day of survey administration, research staff was on site to explain, distribute and collect surveys and to answer any participant questions. All students were instructed that participation was fully voluntary and that they could refuse to participate at any time. All data were double-entered, with random spot checks and examination of out-of-range responses to ensure accuracy. The sample obtained from this survey is demographically similar to the sample of CT adolescents aged 14–18 from the 2000 US Census.

2.2 Measures

The full survey was composed of 153 questions assessing demographics, substance use, and other risk behavior participation. Lifetime marijuana and past month marijuana use were the dependent variables. Potential correlates chosen fell into three domains: demographic, psychosocial and risk behavior correlates. Demographic variables included race/ethnicity (African-American, Caucasian, Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Other), gender, who the participant lives with (both parents, one parent or in another arrangement), average grades in school (As/Bs, Bs/Cs or Cs and below), and grade in school (9 th , 10 th , 11 th or 12 th ). Participants were allowed to choose as many races/ethnicities as they felt applied to them. Psychosocial variables included whether the participant engages in extracurricular activities and whether the participant has a job. Finally, risk behaviors included past year gambling, past month cigarette use, past month alcohol use, past month binge alcohol use, lifetime nonmedical use of steroids, past year physical fighting, carrying a weapon in the past month, 2 or more weeks of depressed mood with anhedonia in the past year, and lifetime self-harm. Time from the age of initiation of marijuana use to age of regular use was examined using two items asking participants the age at which they began marijuana use and the age at which they began regular use, which was assessed by asking if participants considered themselves to be regular marijuana users. Answer choices for both items were: 8 or younger, 9–10, 11–12, 13–14, 15–16 or 17 years of age or older.

2.3 Data Analyses

Distribution characteristics of all variables were examined. Three sets of analyses were performed. First, chi-square analyses evaluated demographic, psychosocial and risk behavior correlates separately by gender. Second, hierarchical logistic regressions were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for past month or lifetime marijuana use, given presence of a specific correlate. Grade in school was controlled for, as older students were significantly more likely to use marijuana. These analyses were stratified by gender to evaluate effects in males and females separately. Finally, hierarchical logistic regressions were used to evaluate potential gender interactions. Again, grade in school was controlled for through entry in the first block of variables. In the second block, the specific correlate and gender were entered. In the third, the interaction term for the correlate and gender were entered. When not specifically listed, the significance level for all analyses was set at a p-value below .05. Finally, the analysis of time from initiation of marijuana use to initiation of regular use used a Mann-Whitney U analysis with gender as the independent variable and difference in age category (listed above) endorsed for age of initiation and age of regular use initiation; only adolescents who had transitioned to regular marijuana use were included in these analyses.

3. Results

3.1 Demographic and Marijuana Use Characteristics

4523 adolescents participated in the survey, with 2124 males (47.0%) and 2345 females (51.8%). Fifty-four participants (1.2%) did not enter a gender and were not included in these analyses. Of participants, 1906 males (89.7% of males) and 2191 females (93.4% of females) completed the marijuana use section and were included in this study. Included participants had a mean age of 15.86 years (SD = 1.26); 10.2% were African-American, 14.0% were Hispanic/Latino, 18.3% were Asian or another ethnicity, and 75.8% were Caucasian. Participants were allowed to choose as many races/ethnicities as they felt applied to them, so data on racial/ethnic background will total to above 100%. Of participants with complete marijuana use data, 1655 participants (40.4%) endorsed lifetime marijuana use and 1004 participants (24.5%) endorsed past 30-day use (participants could be members of both the lifetime and past 30-day marijuana use groups); 2442 participants (59.6%) denied lifetime marijuana use. By gender, 854 females (39.0% of females) and 802 males (42.1% of males) endorsed lifetime marijuana use; 491 females (22.4% of females) and 513 males (26.9% of males) endorsed past 30-day use. Both of these are significant differences (lifetime: χ 2 = 4.07, p =.044; past 30-day: χ 2 = 11.10, p 2 = 19.96, p 2 = 38.34, p 2 = 22.37, p 2 = 50.19, p 2 = 37.48, p 2 = 7.62, p = .007) and were more likely to have used alcohol in a binge fashion (χ 2 = 5.78, p = .016) in the past 30 days. No differences between were found in lifetime self-harm (χ 2 = 2.70, p = .109) or in taking part in a physical fight in the past year (χ 2 = 1.55, p = .213).

3.3 Characteristics Associated with Lifetime Marijuana Use, Stratified by Gender

For both male and female participants, self-reported grade in school, average grades and family structure were significant correlates. Across gender, 9 th graders were significantly less likely than 11 th or 12 th graders to have used marijuana, and those with an A/B average in school were less likely to have used than those with a B/C average or Cs and below. Males and females differed slightly in the association of family structure and lifetime marijuana use: males in a two-parent household were less likely to have ever used than males in either a one-parent household or some other household (e.g., with grandparents); for females, those in a two-parent household were only less likely to use than those in a one-parent household. Notable gender differences were observed in the association of race with lifetime use. African-American males and Caucasian females were more likely to have ever used marijuana. Females of Asian or “Other” race were less likely to have used.

Across gender, taking part in extracurricular activities was associated with lower rates of lifetime use, whereas having a job was associated with a greater likelihood of ever using. Furthermore, all risk behaviors were significantly associated with lifetime marijuana use. In all cases, participation in a risk behavior was associated with a greater likelihood of lifetime marijuana use. Data for demographic characteristics are listed in Table 1 ; data for psychosocial characteristics and risk behavior participation are in Table 2 .

Table 1

Demographic Characteristics of Participants versus Lifetime and Past 30-day Marijuana Use

Boys Girls
Variable N (%) % Ever
MJ Use
% Past 30-
day MJ Use
N(%) % Ever
MJ Use
% Past 30-
day MJ Use
African -American Yes 204 (10.7) 50.5 * 28.3 210 (9.6) 33.8 15.5
No 1702 (89.3) 41.1 26.7 1981 (90.4) 39.5 23.1
Caucasian Yes 1429 (75.0) 41.8 27.0 1688 (77.0) 41.9 ** 24.7 **
No 477 (25.0) 42.8 26.3 503 (23.0) 29.2 14.4
Hispanic/Latino Yes 252 (13.9) 47.6 31.1 297 (14.1) 38.4 24.7
N o 1567 (86.1) 41.2 26.2 1808 (85.9) 39.2 21.9
Other/Asian Yes 348 (18.3) 39.4 25.8 392 (17.9) 30.9 ** 15.4 **
No 1558 (81.7) 42.7 27.1 1799 (82.1) 40.7 23.9
Grade 9 th 585 (30.7) 30.4 ** 19.9 ** 652 (29.8) 26.4 ** 16.3 **
10 th 526 (27.6) 41.6 26.7 608 (27.8) 38.2 22.5
11 th 496 (26.1) 48.2 28.0 577 (26.4) 47.8 26.4
12 th 297 (15.6) 55.6 38.7 349 (16.0) 48.7 25.9
Grades A/B 939 (50.5) 29.3 ** 17.8 ** 1365 (64.2) 30.5 ** 16.6 **
B/C 613 (33.0) 50.6 30.4 581 (27.3) 52.0 29.0
C or below 307 (16.5) 65.1 48.0 179 (8.4) 58.1 41.0
Family Structure 2 Parents 1376 (73.2) 38.0 ** 23.2 ** 1508 (69.9) 34.8 ** 20.2 *
1 Parent 402 (21.4) 51.5 33.3 530 (24.6) 48.7 26.8
Other 103 (5.4) 60.2 47.5 119 (5.5) 46.2 28.6

Notes: Bolded terms are significantly different (p ≤ .05);

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ADOLESCENT MARIJUANA USE AND ASSOCIATED PSYCHOSOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS Abstract Marijuana use in adolescents is associated with many adverse outcomes, including