kings of kush candle

Kings of Kush Co.

Kings of Kush Co.

Out of all the senses in the body, there is one sense that seems to bypass our higher reasoning and affect our memories and emotions in an unequivocally powerful way. Scent is one of the most powerful senses linked with memory for a reason. The nerve in your brain responsible for interpreting olfactory stimuli is extremely close to the amygdala, a component of the brain that plays a crucial part in emotional responses. I recently got to exercise my amygdala when I received an amazing Purple Haze scented candle from Kings of Kush Co. Their Purple Haze candle is produced with soy and utilizes a bounty of essential oils to create a “scent-sation,” which immediately triggered an emotional memory to surface when I took my first whiff. Call it a side effect of my profession, but I still can’t place the exact memory being triggered when I smell this Kings of Kush candle, but I know it’s a good one. This marvelous candle is a combination of citrus, cherry blossom, hydrangea, apple, peach, and blondewood, accented by a fragrance oil including orange and grapefruit essential oils. For me the scent of hydrangea really comes through to create a marvelously floral aroma that I can see being the prefect scent accommodation to a fat bowl of Maui Wowie, or another equally sweet strain. When you light up this candle is when the real magic happens. The full characters open up and the scent of sweet hydrangea yields to include the rich smell of cherry blossom and peach with a hint of tartness from the grapefruit. Although I still can’t quite place the memory being triggered by this candle, I can’t deny how happy it makes me feel when I smell it. I know that there are other cannabis and CBD products out there which also have positive effects on your health, whether it’s to manage mental health and combating mental health problems or triggering memories like this candle. Products can also be used to manage other medical conditions and pain relief. With the ongoing research, many people are able to purchase a CBD Beginners Starter Kit as well as these candles to begin managing their wellness. Eager to learn more, I reached out to Dan and Tyler, the founders of Kings of Kush, to get a little more insight on what their company is about.

Kings of Kush

Jesse Grove : When and where was your company founded and by whom?

Kings of Kush : Kings of Kush Co. was founded in March 2014 by two stoner brothers, Dan and Tyler. Kings of Kush Co. is currently based in Colorado, but sold throughout the world.

J : What were the reasons/inspiration for creating your company?

K : Growing up in a state where cannabis use is illegal, Dan and Tyler still medicated regularly and fully supported the cannabis movement. Once they were able to move to a medical state (Colorado) they were able to focus more on their various companies.

J : In five years what are some of the goals you would like to reach?

K : In the next 5 years, Kings of Kush Co. is aiming to make a huge impact on the cannabis industry. We have a lot of exciting things going on, but the major projects were working on are: 1) Continuing to develop our clothing catalog, releasing brand new designs each season 2) hosting and sponsoring various cannabis and music festivals, and 3) growing our fundraiser network with our “Kush Candles” to help patients around the country gain access to CBD oil.

J : Any dispensaries/retail locations in Colorado where patrons can buy some of your gear?

K : We are primarily an online company, but you can find our products at Public Smoke Shop in Longmont, CO and Terrapin Care Station in Boulder, CO.

J : What do you think your most unique/flagship product is?

K : All Kings of Kush Co. products are unique. As for our apparel, all of our designs are 100% original and drawn by our own design team. However, our most unique product is the handcrafted Kush Candle. They are available in all different colors and fragrances such as Lemon Haze, Blueberry YumYum, and Green Crack. Not to mention the wax is made purely from soybeans, which allows them to burn 2-3 times longer than a normal candle. Plus, they all smell kick ass. The Kush Candles are available to purchase retail, but we also have an extremely effective fundraising service with these candles to help dispensaries raise money for whatever needs they have.

J : What do you find to be the most exciting aspect of the new growth of the marijuana industry?

K : There is literally so many awesome things about this industry, but the most exciting thing is off of the innovation and research being done on cannabis. The taboo around marijuana is slowly being lifted, and it’s badass to see all the new and inspiring things that are emerging from our culture.

J : What are some of your favorite things about Colorado?

K : Well… we’ve got beautiful weather, beautiful people, finely grown weed, delicious beer, and positive vibrations everywhere… What more could you ask for?

J : What are some of your favorite strains?

K : Being a connoisseur in Colorado is literally a dream come true and the options are endless. We definitely prefer Indica, so you know we love our OGs. Our favorites are Skywalker OG, Ghost OG, Peach OG, Larry OG, Tahoe OG, and Bruce Banner. But for those creative mornings, GSC, Lemon Skunk, Sour D, or Bubblegum will always do the trick.

Thanks again to the Kings, Dan and Tyler, for telling me a little bit more about who you are and how you’ve evolved into the company you are today. I know that I for one will be lighting my Purple Haze candle up with pride, even though I still can’t place the smell in my memory. If you want to stir some memories of your own, or if you just want to check out some of the awesome gear that Kings of Kush Co. has to offer, you can check out their website here. Now that my house will smell like fresh Purple Haze, I have no doubts that I will be trying for hours to recall that elusive memory, but at least I know I will create other good amygdala stimulating memories from now on thanks to Kings of Kush Co. and their awesome candles.

Kings of Kush Co. of Colorado provides unique marijuana apparel and the handcrafted soy Kush Candle which burns 2-3 times longer than a normal candle.


when to sex cannabis plants

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How To Tell Sex Of Your Cannabis Plants

Sexing cannabis plants is really just finding out whether they are male or female, this can be very important for various reasons, ranging from a breeding project to extensive phenotype hunting. Knowing how and when to tell if your plants are male or female will give you an advantage when growing indoors.

In this article, we explain how to tell the sex of your Cannabis plants, what traits to look for, and what can go wrong.

1. The First Signs of Pre-Flowers

When growing from seed, Cannabis plants will spend the earliest stage of their life cycle focusing on the root, leaf, and stem production.

On the basis that a grower keeps a plant growing under 18 hours of light with high humidity levels of close to 75%, for 5-6 weeks then the plants will begin to show preflowers.

After your plants grow to the 6th or 7th internode, you will be able to identify by eye potential male or female traits.

Cannabis plants that are put into flowering from the seedling stage, will still require 3-4 weeks before the first signs of pre-flowers appear. These are the very first signs of the Cannabis plant’s sex and will either be a tiny male or female pre-flower.

Some cultivars may produce pre-flowers faster than others, however, all plants will reveal themselves around the same time. There is absolutely no need to worry about identifying male plants early on, as they will not be able to produce pollen until a much later time.

2. Male Plant Characteristics

The number one fear any beginner grower has when working with regular sex seedlings is to allow a male to pollinate the entire crop. There is no need to be concerned if your intention is to pheno hunt all the female plants, as removing males before they produce sacs will cause no need for concern.

Male Cannabis plants will produce pre-flowers in the same places as the females. Not only does this make distinguishing between the two early on even more difficult, but it may also take a few weeks before you can completely confirm you have a male plant.

You will notice between the upper internodes, there will be a small cluster of miniature oval-shaped balls. As they mature, you will notice they are attached to a tiny stem and will become bigger and turn green.

• Top Tip: It is best to wait until you can identify the male characteristics, before throwing any plants out of the garden. Do not be overzealous and potentially discard a female plant.

3. Female Plant Characteristics

It is much easier to spot a female preflower, as you are only looking for a thin, hair shaped pistil. When these emerge from between the internodes, they will look like a white eyelash or a tiny blade of grass.

Over time, white hairs will begin to grow amongst the new growth and can be very hard to spot. Double-check what you identify as the female preflower, and wait until you can clearly see a white pistil.

After the first signs of pistils emerge, over the following weeks, the female plants will begin to display an abundance of pistils. This is where plants require higher amounts of Phosphorus and Potassium encouraging flower production and produce buds.

• Top Tip: It is best to use a magnifying glass, or loupe for checking trichomes to double-check. It may take a week or two before you can confidently say you have a female.

4. Using Feminized Seeds or Clones

The only sure way to determine sex before your plants reach maturity is to c lone the plant. T his could be achieved by taking a clone from any plant.

Growing with Cannabis seeds or clones, that are guaranteed to be all-female, has many advantages from the small-scale bedroom grower, to the large commercial ones.

Cut one of the branches then put into a small cup with medium and let to grow for a few days. After the clone’s roots have developed a bit, place it under a 12/12 life cycle.

Soon, the plant will reach maturity and show its sex, because clones share the same DNA as the plant where it was taken from, the clone will show the sex the main plant has.

Note: This tip cannot be used with autoflowers because they start flowering based on age and not photoperiod.

If you are not working on a breeding project and your goal is to grow as many female plants as possible, then using feminized seeds or clones is the most practical route to take.

The Benefits

• This will guarantee that the plants you produce will be 100% female, meaning that prior to flowering, there is no requirement to pull plants out of the grow room. This eliminates any waste of space, nutrients, and growing medium.

• Large scale Sea of Green operations can be set up, without the need to worry about any male plants. This means the crop will not be cross-contaminated with pollen and become seeded and commercial useless.

• Working with clones is an excellent way to grow something that has already been verified. Usually, highly desirable clones can be vouched for by another grower or will have lots of information to research online.

5. In Conclusion

Knowing how to identify male and female Cannabis plants when using regular seeds, is vital to ensuring an all-female crop is maintained.

We recommend you take your time before throwing out any plants and be prepared to allow male plants to mature enough to see their pollen sacs forming.

Sexing cannabis plants is really just finding out whether they are male or female, this can be very important for various reasons, ranging from a breeding proje

cartoon character smoking weed

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Create Cartoon Characters Smoking Weed

Contest Brief

Create these 10 Characters all smoking weed. Do each character individually and one large image of all of them together. Feel free to use your imagination. They could be smoking out of a joint, bong or anything crazy! If i like your work i have a ton of future projects as well.

1. Goku from Dragonball z
2. Mario
3. Naruto
4. Vegeta from Dragonball Z
5. Mickey Mouse
6. Bart Simpson
7. Hello Kitty
8. Batman
9. Darth Vader
10. Shrek

Recommended Skills

  • Computer Graphics
  • Graphic Design
  • Logo Design
  • Photoshop
  • Photoshop Design

Employer Feedback

“Amazing work and great person to deal with”

olihy7, Canada.

Top entries from this contest

Public Clarification Board

  • 2 years ago

Damn, what a interesting contest, wasted opportunity. Winner desereved it though..

  • 2 years ago
  • 2 years ago

Hey! I posted Naruto and Songo Ku. Check them out. I’m curious if you like it. I read your comments but I wonder what pose or facial expression you would suggest.

  • 2 years ago
  • 2 years ago

Nearly done with my complete entry. It will be uploaded either tomorrow, or early the following day at the very latest.

  • 2 years ago
  1. Contest Holder
    • 2 years ago
    • 2 years ago
  • Contest Holder
    • 2 years ago

    for reference check this link

    • 2 years ago

    the link doesn’t work

    • 2 years ago
  • Contest Holder
    • 2 years ago

    below is the kind of detail id like to see in each character. not the background. but the character itself needs to be very cool and creative

    • 2 years ago
    • 2 years ago

    Hi. what do you think about putting a bit of originality so that the characters do not stop so copied. For example, do goku with a shirt with marijuana leaf or make naruto with dreadlocks (it’s an example) what do you think?

    • 2 years ago

    Definitely ! Considered adding dreadlocks to one or two characters but wasn’t sure.

    • 2 years ago

    Hi. What about mine please

    • 2 years ago
    1. Contest Holder
      • 2 years ago

      not looking for that style

      • 2 years ago

      I apologize for doing this, but it really annoys me when people do not post their own work:

      • 2 years ago
      1. Contest Holder
        • 2 years ago

        thanks for showing. i know i was not happy when i saw that entry!

        • 2 years ago

        Please await my entry! I will submit before the closing date!

        • 2 years ago
      2. Contest Holder
        • 2 years ago

        Vader smoking out of a lightsaber
        spongebob out of a pineapple bong

        ideas like that i like!

        • 2 years ago
        • 2 years ago

        Interest contest but you should #increaseprize because this is some amount of work to make for $15 each characters. Thanks

        • 2 years ago
        1. Contest Holder
          • 2 years ago

          sorry this is the price. this is seen as an audition as i have a ton of future work for the winner

          • 2 years ago

          dear sir.interesting contest, i’m working on it !

          • 2 years ago
          1. Contest Holder
            • 2 years ago

            looking forward to your work!

            • 2 years ago

            interesting contest, i’m working on it !

            • 2 years ago
            1. Contest Holder
              • 2 years ago

              looking forward to your work!

              How to get started with contests

              Post Your Contest Quick and easy

              Get Tons of Entries From around the world

              Award the best entry Download the files – Easy!

              Create Cartoon Characters Smoking Weed contest on Freelancer. Enter this Computer Graphics contest, find Design jobs or post a similar contest for free!

              how to ship weed through the mail

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              How to ship weed through the mail

              New guidelines from the US Postal Service reveal the federal agency will now ship and deliver some cannabis products. Specifically, hemp products.

              As first reported by Kight on Cannabis, the USPS “quietly released” the memo earlier this month. The letter cites the 2014 and 2018 Farm Bills, which federally permitted and expanded hemp cultivation throughout the US in states that legalized weed. The guidelines state the USPS will only handle cannabis products made from hemp that contains less than 0.3 percent THC.

              Hemp is a form of cannabis that contains negligible amounts of THC, so it won’t get anyone buzzed. In recent years, its cultivation has grown popular in the US for extracting CBD, a non-intoxicating compound with medicinal properties.

              Related: The World’s Shittiest Blunts

              Of course, the US government won’t make mailing weed products easy. First, to ship hemp or hemp products through the USPS, mailers must fill out a form confirming they are sending hemp and only hemp. Lying on the self-certification statement could subject the mailer to federal perjury laws.

              Second, only licensed industrial hemp producers can mail hemp products. So, think twice before sending some dank shatter hash to your buddy out in South Dakota.

              Cannabis has been legal to varying degrees at the state levels since the 1990s, when California first approved medical cannabis. But even after Colorado and Washington state launched America’s first recreational or adult-use cannabis sales, the USPS forbade mailing any cannabis products through the postal system in accordance with federal law.

              Despite the USPS’s ban, people kept sending weed through the postal system. In 2017, the agency discovered over 900 packages containing weed in Colorado alone.

              The USPS memo does not change federal law, but rather it clarifies shipping rules now that hemp is federally legal. According to Marijuana Moment, the US Department of Agriculture, which oversees hemp nationwide, plans to issue new, comprehensive regulations for the plant sometime next year.

              New guidelines from the USPS reveal that the federal agency will now ship and deliver hemp. But you still should think twice before sending some dank to your buddy out in South Dakota.

              when to harvest og kush

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              OG Kush – First Grow

              Я помню, что беспокоился о сборе урожая слишком рано, возможно, иметь некоторые остаточные PM, не давая ему достаточно высохнуть, и еще больше до тех пор, пока я выдыхал my первую чашу..

              И тогда ничего из этого не имело значения. Особенно, когда вы дышите дым/паром, свежий сосновый таз оставляет вас с этим большим послевкусием, почти мятный свежий. И то же самое можно сказать и о высоком!

              Я курил некоторые действительно отличные штаммы в последнее время, но для my первого grow я хотел что-то, что может быть действительно особенным, и я бы сказал, что Dinafem доставил. Высокий действительно чувствует себя свежим и почти euphoric (это может быть только я:) но я бы сказал, что вы, конечно, будете оставлены поднятым. Но, как ни странно, в то же время, я, вероятно, был больше камнями, чем был за долгое время! Я бы сравнил его с интенсивным курением масла, а также с тем, как оно накапливается на вас в ближайшие несколько минут. Это очень странное чувство, что запеченный, но также чувствую себя так ясно голова и свежий, но я абсолютно люблю это!

              Когда он изнашивается, у тебя есть глубокое чувство расслабления, это действительно помогает с my болью. К сожалению, я не думаю, что я вылечил достаточно, чтобы действительно получить отличные запахи лайма и diesel, но вы, конечно, получите вкус этих!

              В целом очень впечатлен Dinafems OG Kush, он оправдал my ожидания и многое другое. Очень рад, что я пошел с этими семенами!

              Bio bizz nutes were just a breeze to use!

              Being a complete beginner, I’m more than sure I overfed my plants, and as far as I could see at least, the plants handled it just fine! I also didn’t pay any attention at all to ph and just let the organic materials and microbes do their thing, and despite all of that, these nutrients were very forgiving.

              Definitely recommend if you’re a beginner, and from what I see on other diaries, an experienced grower can get much more out of them.

              Honestly not sure what difference this made really? I just used it as was recommended to me – I’ll probably have to do a grow without it before I can really comment.

              4 stars since I can definitely say it caused no harm.

              И так это заканчивается! My первый grow.

              Какая поездка была! Особенно с медицинскими проблемами, которые у меня были недавно, мне кажется, что я действительно прошла через путешествие с этими растениями. И my урожай тоже совпал с тем, что я наконец-то стал лучше и вышел из леса!

              Я действительно не ожидал многого, когда начал здесь – мне просто случилось просмотреть специальный онлайн для полного набора палаток, это было в основном все, что мне нужно, чтобы начать grow, и я решил просто прыгнуть прямо там, не зная многого другого. В конце концов, я пытался узнать столько, сколько мог, прежде чем семена прибыли, но это было все еще довольно нервный рэккинг!

              Я думаю, что в конечном итоге мне стало намного удобнее с my растением, и решил экспериментировать со всем, что мог. Так что немного LST, топпинг, много дефолиации, и my первый DIY scrog сети. Это также был очень короткий grow, поэтому я никогда не пробовал достаточно каждого метода, чтобы действительно получить преимущества, но я определенно достиг my главной цели обучения столько, сколько мог! Я думаю, что у меня довольно хорошее представление о том, как будет идти my следующая шкала grow, и просто зная, что это заставляет меня возбуждаться!

              My свет также был не самым большим, но я на самом деле очень впечатлен тем, что я получил от свободного 300w двойного спектра CFL. OG Kush особенно продемонстрировал отсутствие проникновения от CFL – я определенно собираюсь с либо светодиодом или Cob следующий grow. На самом деле, я так зацепился, что решил разорвать весь шкаф, в котором находится my палатка, и перестроить многокамерную гибридную систему освещения для grow ений/клон/цветок, чтобы я мог постоянно вращать растения и получать несколько клонов. И что еще более важно, разобраться в my вентиляции и текущих стесненных условиях оборудования.

              В конце концов, узнав столько, сколько я мог (даже как сделать некоторые сотовые bho:), у меня остались 3 цели, чтобы достичь, которые я добавил по пути.

              1. Успешно достичь конца my первого урожая – определенно добрался туда:)

              2. Заполните 3 маленьких стеклянных банок, которые вы видите на my фото – они обычно держат около 10 г, поэтому я надеялся на 30г в основном. В конечном итоге с 20 г OG kush и 9 г ВВП, и я также был очень либеральным с тем, что я назвал попкорн почки, так что достаточно отделки, чтобы получить мне 2 г extract соты. И по объему сдвига, я мог бы заполнить 4 банки, так что другая цель достигла:)

              3. И как последняя, последняя, полностью там цель – grow некоторые, если не лучшие сорняки, которые я когда-либо курил. Я специально получил эти семена, основанные на репутации штаммов и, в частности, отзывы о штамме Dinafem, и я никогда не курил OG Kush раньше, так что у меня была надежда.. Это еще слишком рано, чтобы позвонить, мне нужно было дать ему гораздо более длительное лечение, но если вы прочитаете my обзор напряжения выше, я думаю, что это может быть только один!

              Так что на данный момент, может быть, до my следующего дневника, потому что я собираюсь немного сумасшедший ученый с моим grow space в первую очередь. Но я точно вернусь.

              Спасибо всем, кто помог мне и только что дал мне такую большую поддержку и поддержку!
              Счастливый рост!

              “OG Kush – First Grow” cannabis grow journal. Strains: Dinafem OG Kush by Swarleyza. Grow room В помещении, growing in Почва. Harvest yield, seeds review, grow details.

              hemp seeds phytic acid

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              Does Hemp Seed Contain Phytic Acid?

              What Is the Healthiest Bean to Eat?

              Hemp is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant, but before you get too concerned or excited, you should know that it’s not the same as marijuana. The hemp plant and its seeds contain only tiny amounts of THC, which is the compound in marijuana that produces a high. Consequently, eating hemp seeds will not mellow you out or give you the munchies. Hemp seeds are also unlikely to cause many gastrointestinal problems because they don’t contain any phytic acid.

              Hemp Seeds

              The hemp plant has been used by various cultures around the globe for thousands of years. It can be made into paper, clothes, soap, fuel and food. Hemp plants produce seeds, which are very high in nutrition. They are an excellent source of complete protein, which means they contain all the essential amino acids your body cannot produce. Hemp seed is also a very good source of fiber and essential fats, especially omega-3 fatty acids, and it contains many vitamins and minerals in trace amounts. Possession and consumption of hemp seeds is legal in the United States and Canada, but using them to grow plants is a gray area due to their association with marijuana. That’s why many hemp seeds are sterilized by radiation before they are sold or imported into the U.S.

              Easily Digested

              Unlike many seeds, nuts, beans and legumes, your body can easily digest and absorb hemp seeds and derive nutrients from them. Most seeds, grains and legumes need to be soaked, dried, cooked and/or sprouted to deactivate toxins and compounds usually referred to as anti-nutrients. Toxins and anti-nutrients, such as phytic acid, often cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea. They can also interfere with the absorption of nutrients.

              Phytic Acid

              Phytic acid is called an anti-nutrient because it’s indigestible and prevents your body from absorbing nutrients, especially minerals needed in small amounts such as zinc and iron but also macro-minerals such as calcium and magnesium and the B vitamin niacin. Phytic acid makes minerals and niacin unavailable to your body because it chelates or attaches to them and drags them out of the body. Phytic acid plays important roles for the seeds and grains that it’s in, but it can wreak havoc in human bodies and contribute to mineral and vitamin deficiencies. Hemp seeds are unusual in that they contain no phytic acid, so you can eat them raw without any special preparations.

              Rich Sources of Phytic Acid

              Foods that contain high levels of phytic acid include sesame seeds, linseed, Brazil nuts, peanuts, wheat, soybeans and pinto beans. Consequently, these foods are typically prepared in same fashion before consumption. For example, sesame seeds and peanuts are usually roasted to destroy phytic acid and render it harmless.

              Hemp is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant, but before you get too concerned or excited, you should know that it’s not the same as marijuana. The hemp plant and its seeds contain only tiny amounts of THC, which is the compound in marijuana that produces a high. Consequently, eating hemp seeds will not …

              legal alternatives to weed

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              There’s A ‘Legal High’ You Can Buy Online, And It Isn’t Cannabis

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              A recent study by a group of scientists in Bern, Switzerland examining a cannabinoid extracted from a rare moss-like plant–a member of the liverwort family–growing only in Japan, New Zealand, and Costa Rica has revealed potentially useful properties that may be valuable for people suffering with inflammation and chronic pain.

              Liverwort (Radula perrottetii)

              University of Bern/Stefan Fischer

              What’s even more interesting is that this moss is distantly related to a plant we are quite familiar with–Cannabis Sativa which has more recently emerged as a potential approach for treating seizures, multiple sclerosis, inflammation, and many chronic medical conditions.

              Thus far, the researchers do not understand why this specific liverwort–which has a different way of living and reproducing compared with Cannabis—would harbor a compound so similar to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component found in marijuana. (It was previously believed that the only plant that produces THC was Cannabis Sativa.)

              What they do realize is that the cannabinoid isolated from this liverwort, and THC found in Cannabis are chemically similar , but also produce quite similar effects in the brains of mammals.

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              The study was recently published in the Journal, Science Advances.

              PET was first described in 1994 by the Japanese phytochemist, Yoshinori Asakawa. But it wasn’t until Jürg Gertsch from the Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine at the University of Bern, evaluated the similarity of this compound in structure and activity to THC in the brains of mammals that the significance became more relevant.

              Several years ago, Gertsch noticed that liverworts were being promoted online as “legal highs”, used by recreational and medicinal users in Switzerland, New Zealand, as well as other areas of the world. But no research had been done to evaluate the pharmacological properties of the cannabinoids contained in the plant. Gertsch joined forces with his colleague, Erick Carreira, from the Department of Chemistry at the ETH Zürich, and proceeded to compare THC and PET.

              Using an animal model (mice), the team demonstrated that PET reaches the brain relatively easily, but activates cannabinoid receptors– CB1 and CB2 receptors–to a much weaker degree compared with THC. As a result, a key difference between the two compounds is that PET is much less psychoactive compared with THC, making it more attractive for medicinal as opposed to recreational purposes. But PET’s more potent anti-inflammatory effects, compared with THC, based on initial studies, certainly became a point of further interest.

              Gertsch believes that PET’s more robust anti-inflammatory effect in the brain compared with THC, makes it noteworthy, especially if you consider its potential medical applications.

              “It’s astonishing that only two species of plants, separated by 300 million years of evolution, produce psychoactive cannabinoids,” said Gertsch in a press release.

              And it turns out that the Maori people, indigenous to New Zealand, have utilized the liverwort plant for centuries as a traditional medicine for treating abnormalities of the liver or digestive issues.

              “The work of Jürg Gertsch and colleagues is a prominent advance in understanding the role of plants beyond cannabis on the endocannabinoid system,” said Ethan Russo M.D., a neurologist, and Director of Research and Development for International Cannabis and Cannabinoids Institute (ICCI). “Perrottetinene from the liverwort, Radula marginata, has proven to stimulate weakly the CB1 receptor where THC and the endocannabinoids, anandamide (ANA) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) also bind.

              “Although this activity was proven via positive effects on the mouse tetrad of hypothermia (lowered temperature), catalepsy (frozen behavior), hypolocomotion (decreased movement) and analgesia (pain reduction), and was demonstrated to enter the brain, it is unlikely to become a major target of recreation users because of its relatively low potency and especially since liverworts are very slow growing and difficult to cultivate.” added Russo.

              Russo also explained that “perrottetinene differs from THC in a key way that makes it potentially useful medically, in that it reduces levels of prostaglandins D2 and E2 in the brain without producing COX inhibition, and thus may provide an effective anti-inflammatory and pain killer with a low risk of intoxication, formation of ulcers, or production of heart attacks or strokes.

              Russo explained that this finding should prompt additional biochemical prospecting in other liverwort species in this frequently overlooked group of “primitive” plants.

              Jeffrey C. Raber, Ph.D., a chemist with expertise in cannabinoid physiology and CEO of The Werc Shop, an independent testing laboratory in Southern California, also sees the potential upside of perrottetinene from a clinical standpoint as well, but realizes that cultivating and extraction of the compound may be challenging, but could be overcome with creativity and ingenuity.

              “The stereochemistry of this compound suggests it may possess interesting clinical potential with minimized psychoactive side effect,” explained Raber. “Obtaining significant quantities of pure compound may be challenging initially, but viable natural based or synthetic routes may both be developed should it prove of interest to do so.”

              PET less psychoactive compared with THC

              It’s well known that low doses of THC may offer therapeutic potential when it comes to treating various chronic illnesses. But THC is limited from a therapeutic standpoint due to a strong psychoactive effect at higher doses, other than being illegal at this time.

              As previously mentioned, in contrast to THC, PET inhibits the production of inflammatory prostaglandins in the brain. As a result, PET likely has an effect on cannabinoid receptors which interact with our endogenous endocannabinoids. Certainly more preclinical studies of various models of chronic and inflammatory pain will be necessary to better understand its role in this setting.

              To obtain adequate amounts of PET from the liverwort plant, Gertsch collaborated with his colleague, Erick Carreira, whose team developed a new synthetic way to preserve the 3-D structure of the compound on a molecular level.

              “The present study is a prime example of how new synthetic concepts can make a contribution towards enriching our pharmacological knowledge of biologically-active natural substances”, said Michael Schafroth, PhD, who studied and worked under the direction of Dr. Carreira, in a press release.

              “Both solid fundamental research in the field of biochemical and pharmacological mechanisms as well as controlled clinical studies are required to carry out cannabinoid research”, added Gertsch.

              With recent legalization of Cannabis in Canada helping to support ongoing support for research and patient interest in using combinations of CBD and THC to treat common conditions such as endometriosis, fibromyalgia and IBS, it’s becoming more apparent that the endocannabinoid system and its associated deficiencies may hold the key to relieving pain and alleviating bothersome symptoms that are difficult to treat.

              Use of CBD (Epidiolex, GW Pharmaceuticals) to treat intractable seizures associated with Dravet syndrome and Lennox Gastaut Syndrome, along with THC (2.7 mg) and CBD (2.5 mg) per spray (nabiximols, Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals) to treat spasticity associated with MS is supported by published research and has emerged as a viable way to manage these difficult-to-treat conditions when available and standard approaches yield minimal improvement.

              Market aspects of cannabinoids

              As clinicians seek less harmful modalities than opioids for treating chronic pain, PTSD, gastrointestinal, and autoimmune disorders, liverwort and its derivatives may hold promise as a safer therapy. The road to get there will involve not only refining methods of extraction and purification, but a significant amount of preclinical studies in animal models, before it’s ever tested in humans.

              “2018 has seen the phenomenal rise of Cannabis and hemp (CBD) as an alternative therapy to alleviate the symptoms of pain, epilepsy, PTSD, MS, fibromyalgia, endometriosis, GI disorders, and many other chronic conditions,”said Rich Able, a medical device consultant based in Seattle.

              “This is a very exciting time as big liquor and big pharma companies have invested billions of dollars into Cannabis ventures and clinical labs throughout the year,” offered Able. “This trend will continue as clinicians potentially investigate safer plant-based alternative therapies such as liverwort.”

              “Known plant-based compounds like this one [PET] can be challenging to protect with patents, which is one reason why they may not be prioritized by industry,” said Greg Wesner, Chair of Lane Powell’s Intellectual Property Litigation Team, based in Seattle. “Nevertheless, even if the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) itself is not patentable as a chemical entity, it may be possible to obtain patent protection for a drug candidate that combines the API with an effective, patentable drug delivery technology.”

              “Moreover, the API could be the subject of a method of treatment patent if the API is discovered to be a novel treatment for a disease indication,” added Wesner.

              A recent study revealed that a moss-like plant known as a liverwort harbors a cannabinoid with remarkable chemical similarities to THC found in Cannabis, and also yields quite similar effects in the brains of mammals.

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