Cannabis seed breeders often refer to F1, F2, S1, IBL & BX marijuana seeds. Find out what the terms mean and how they evolved. Everything You Need To Know About Different Types Of Cannabis Seeds Cannabis cultivation can be complicated, especially if you don’t already have commercial growing experience. There are light Most novice cultivators get excited about choosing a strain to grow, but it’s also important to know about the different types of cannabis seeds on the market.
What are F1, F2, S1 cannabis seeds?
To many people cannabis seeds are simply cannabis seeds. But breeders and connoisseur growers also use different terms for cannabis seeds, such as F1, F2, S1 etc. In this review, we will explain what is meant by these terms and precisely what they tell you about the cannabis seeds which they describe.
|●||The basics of cannabis genetics for breeders|
|●||Different types of F1 cannabis seeds|
|●||The difference between F1 and F2 cannabis seeds|
|●||How does selfing produce S1 cannabis seeds?|
|●||Cannabis genetics hybridisation process case studies|
|●||Cannabis seeds quality: what to know before growing?|
The basics of cannabis genetics for breeders
Most home growers tend not to worry too much about terms such as F1 cannabis seeds, F1 hybrid cannabis seeds etc. So long as the seeds contain reliably good quality genetics few people are too concerned about the terminology used. However, to many cannabis breeders it is vitally important to understand the sometimes subtle, but critical, differences.
What does f1 hybrid mean? Cannabis seeds are formed when pollen from the male pollinates a female plant. The male genetics cross with those from the female to create F1 cannabis seeds, meaning that the cross is a First generation cross. If the parents were from two different strains the result would be F1 hybrid cannabis seeds.
Note that male pollen spreads easily and will pollinate any nearby female plants. That’s why professional breeders have isolated, dedicated breeding rooms which prevent accidental pollen spread. Pollen may be applied with small brushes using e.g. paint brushes, allowing specific branches to be pollinated with pollen from different males if required. Or male and female plants may share the same room, pollen is spread simply using air circulation fans.
Anyone involved with breeding/pollen would normally shower and change clothes to prevent unintended cross contamination between different areas of their breeding facility. Once pollinated, the female plant focusses much of her energy into seed production (rather than bud production).
What are F1 hybrid cannabis seeds?
F1 cannabis seeds simply mean that they are a first generation of offspring from the parent strains. Hybrid vigour is a term often used when discussing cannabis seeds, along with the question ‘Can an F1 outbreed for hybrid vigor?’ Cannabis hybrid vigour is observed when different strains are hybridised in an F1 cross.
If the parent strains were quite different indica and sativa strains then the seeds would be called F1 hybrid cannabis seeds, these may show vigorous growth and display ‘hybrid vigour’ resulting in growth which is faster than usual. This extra growth vitality is seen when different cannabis genetics are hybridised to create an F1 cannabis cross.
Different types of F1 cannabis seeds
F1 cannabis seeds explained! You can buy F1 autoflowering cannabis seeds or photoperiod F1 feminised cannabis seeds. Autoflower seeds tend to have a reputation for being faster and perhaps a little easier/more convenient than feminised seeds, but much depends on the preferences of the grower. F1 regular cannabis seeds are also popular with some old school growers or those conducting their own breeding experiments.
F1 fast cannabis strains are also available, with strains such as Think Fast. These strains have recessive autoflower genetics which cause the f1 fast cannabis strains to grow from seed to harvest a couple of weeks faster than traditional strains. For some outdoor growers this could be the difference between a harvest which ripens before the bad weather arrives and one which doesn’t.
Many connoisseur growers prefer to buy genuine F1 cannabis seeds in order to get the highest chance of the consistent quality results which are most similar to the parent strains. F1 White Widow cannabis seeds from Dutch Passion are a good example. The large numbers of repeat White Widow growers know that their best chances of producing original Grade-A White Widow buds is to use F1 White Widow cannabis seeds.
The difference between F1 and F2 cannabis seeds
F1 cannabis seeds are produced when two parents are crossed. When you see F1 cannabis seeds for sale you would normally expect them to show the closest qualities to the original strains. When the F1 cannabis seeds are grown and subsequently crossed the resulting seeds are known as F2 cannabis seeds.
The subject of F1 and F2 cannabis genetics can be a complicated subject, with questions such as ‘is F1 better than F2 cannabis?’ Whether you get better results with F1 vs F2 cannabis seeds will depend on the individual phenotypes being grown, as well your definition of the word ‘better’. It is perhaps safest to say that F1 cannabis seeds are more likely to show results closer to the original parents compared to F2 seeds.
Note. Growing and crossing F2 cannabis seeds would produce F3 cannabis seeds.
What are inbred line cannabis seeds (IBL)?
Inbred line cannabis seeds, often known simply as IBL seeds, are the result of inbreeding the descendants of the F1 cannabis seeds. It is usual to breed for 5 or more generations (F5) in order to be regarded as inbred line cannabis seeds. At this point the IBL may often be considered as a distinct strain in its own right.
Remember that the cannabis seeds have been produced from plants with genetics which are practically identical over several generations. Although this type of breeding is arduous and may take several years, the resulting cannabis seeds are typically very consistent with highly predictable results for the grower.
The Skunk family of cannabis seeds is an example of in-breeding which has allowed the successful preservation of the distinctive skunk aroma and taste.
What are poly-hybrid cannabis seeds?
The most reputable cannabis seed suppliers work hard to identify the best genetics and then stabilise them, a process which sometimes takes several years. Stable consistent cannabis seeds give the grower the best chance of replicating premium quality genetics in their own grow room. However, if two (F1) hybrid strains are crossed the result is poly hybrid cannabis seeds.
When growing such seeds you can reasonably expect any of the genetics from the diverse parentage to be expressed. For some growers, variety is a good thing. For other growers seeking a tent full of consistent/uniform plants, poly-hybrid cannabis seeds are unwelcome guests.
Many of the less experienced seed suppliers intent on making a ‘fast buck’ simply cross male and female plants to create rapid seed production with absolutely no thought given to stabilisation or optimisation of the genetics. Be sure to do your research carefully before buying cannabis seeds and choose seed banks with a good track record of customer service, plenty of repeat customers and perhaps a few cannabis cups. Cannabis cups are usually a sure sign that your seed bank takes their profession seriously and is there for the long haul.
|Dutch Passion cannabis cup winning strains|
How does selfing produce S1 cannabis seeds?
What does F1 and S1 mean? Female cannabis plants can produce S1 cannabis seeds through a process known as ‘selfing’. Usually this involves taking a cutting/clone from the female mother plant and turning it into a male by a process known as ‘reversion’.
This can be done by spraying the female with a chemical such as Silver Thiosulphate. The stress of this causes the female to become a male plant. Pollen is then collected from this plant and used to pollinate the original mother plant. This allows the original female to effectively be ‘self-pollinated’ or ‘selfed’. The cannabis seeds are known as S1 seeds and have the added stability benefit of using the ‘same’ genetics from the male and female.
Cannabis genetics backcrossing explained
When two parent strains are crossed the result is an F1 cannabis seed. If this seed is grown and crossed with one of the original parents, it is known as backcrossing. Backcrossing is a way of stabilising a cannabis strain since it allows parent genetics to be backcrossed with genetically similar offspring. As a result, greater genetic stability is conferred on the resulting cannabis seeds. This produces more consistent seeds with more predictably uniform results in your grow room.
Cannabis genetics hybridisation process case studies
Often cannabis breeders will aim to combine two great qualities from different strains into a new hybrid. Often this will involve e.g. taking the cannabinoid content from one strains and augmenting it with XXL yields from another.
Orange Hill Special
Orange Hill Special is a Dutch Passion photoperiod feminised seed variety. She was in-bred over 6 generations after the initial crossing with genetics from Orange Bud and Californian Orange.
Orange Bud and Californian Orange are both members of the multi-cannabis cup winning Orange Family of cannabis seeds. These strains stand for premium quality harvests of beautifully citrus scented buds. Orange Bud and Californian Orange have slightly different but complementary terpene profiles. The aim of the hybridisation was to combine the best features of each variety into a new stable strain which would embody the best taste, THC levels and yields.
Orange Hill Special is a member of the most potent cannabis seed selection available, the High THC cannabis seed collection. This is where you can expect consistent 20-25% THC levels across all plants when grown in good conditions. Such stability and consistency don’t arrive by accident, it’s the result of several years of careful selection, lab analysis, stabilisation and careful breeding. If you’re looking to grow heavy harvests of extremely THC rich citrus scented skunk buds then Orange Hill Special is a perfect choice. For best results, LED grow lights are recommended.
Everything You Need To Know About Different Types Of Cannabis Seeds
Cannabis cultivation can be complicated, especially if you don’t already have commercial growing experience. There are light cycles, humidity, watering schedules, pesticides, and harvest dates all to consider. However, the arguably most important decision takes place before ever planting.
Growing marijuana plants starts with selecting the right seeds for your operation. Choosing the wrong seeds could have disastrous results depending on a cultivator’s overall goals. Here’s a brief overview of the common types of marijuana seeds and how to use them.
How Cannabis Reproduces
First, it’s essential to understand how cannabis reproduction takes place. Cannabis is a dioecious plant, which means both male and female versions of the plant exist. When growing male and female weed plants together, male cannabis plants pollinate females, causing them to produce seeds.
In the wild, this ensures the plant propagates. However, cultivators attempting to grow potent marijuana will want to avoid pollination. The high-quality buds available in modern dispensaries are known as sensimilla, which means without seeds. These are female plants that haven’t been pollinated. By avoiding the fertilization process, sensimilla plants grow to produce more resin and, therefore, more overall cannabinoids and terpenes. If you’re growing dispensary-grade marijuana, it’s essential to remove any male plants from your crop before they have an opportunity to pollinate. One way to avoid male plants is to use feminized seeds.
What Are Feminized Cannabis Seeds?
Female plants will attempt to pollinate themselves by growing characteristically male pollen sacs if left in a flowering state for too long. Using the pollen from these hermaphroditic plants to flower other female plants is known as rodelization, and it can help eliminate the potential for male plants. A female plant pollinated from a hermaphroditic female will produce feminized seeds—seeds extremely unlikely to carry male genetics.
Another way cultivators create feminized seeds is by spraying their female plants with a chemical called colloidal silver or silver thiosulfate, which encourages the plant to develop pollen sacs.
Whether you create your own feminized seeds or purchase them from wherever you buy cannabis seeds, remember that feminization is not fool-proof. Feminized seeds may still occasionally produce male plants, so be on the lookout to ensure an overlooked male plant doesn’t pollinate your entire crop.
What Are Autoflowering Cannabis Seeds?
Most cannabis plants are photoperiod, meaning that they require specific light cycles to transition from their vegetative stage to their flowering stage. This is done either by seasonal outdoor planting (typically starting around April) or through artificial light manipulation indoors.
However, autoflowering seeds will move to their flowering stage upon maturity, regardless of the light cycle. Autoflowering seeds come from a rare strain of cannabis called cannabis ruderalis, which evolved in northern climates with long summer days. Ruderalis plants typically have lower cannabinoid percentages, so most autoflowering seeds are crossed with a conventional sativa or indica strain.
Autoflowering seeds generally produce smaller plants that have lower total yields, but for some cultivators, this is outweighed by the benefit of reliable harvest times and the ability to grow outdoors year-round.
How To Germinate Seeds
Regardless of whether a cultivator uses regular, feminized, or autoflowering seeds, cannabis seeds need to be germinated before planting.
Seed germination refers to the process by which a seed sprouts. For many plants, seeds will germinate after being planted. However, germinating cannabis seeds requires a special approach since the seeds are so fragile.
There are several ways to germinate weed seeds. The cheapest and easiest way to do this is by placing your seeds between two moist paper towels and letting them sit in a warm location for a few days. You’ll know the seed is ready once it sprouts a white tail.
What Are Cannabis Clones
Not all commercial cannabis plants come from seeds. Sometimes, cultivators can create a clone.
It starts by taking a clipping from an existing cannabis plant. Then, that plant is transplanted into new soil, where it can take root and create an entirely new plant. Plants that are grown in this method will be genetically identical to the original plant that it was clipped from. Not only does cloning plants help save money on seeds, but it also allows cultivators to replicate desirable genetic profiles more consistently.
Tips For How To Grow Marijuana
Once you’ve selected the seeds that will best fit your operation, following these four tips can help maximize yields and better your chances for a successful harvest.
Different Types of Cannabis Seeds
Most cannabis connoisseurs pick up their beloved dry herb each week from the local dispensary and don’t think twice about where it came from, or what went into producing it, but home growing has become a popular movement amongst the 420 community in legal states. What typically starts out as a hobby or a way to save money on bud, often leads to an obsession over how to produce the highest quality, best tasting flower around. Cultivating cannabis isn’t easy and will require a lot of time and some knowledge about the plant’s life cycle, water, lighting, and nutrient needs, and building the proper grow setup to ensure an adequate environment. Most novice cultivators get excited about choosing a strain to grow, but it’s also important to know about the different types of cannabis seeds on the market.
3 types of cannabis seeds
The average 420 enthusiast may think that plucking out a seed from the bottom of the baggie is all it takes to grow a cannabis plant, but not all cannabis seeds are the same. There’s a reason that seed banks charge anywhere from just a few dollars to over $40 per seed for top-of-the-line genetics. Cannabis plants are dioecious, which means there are males and females, but only the female plants will produce the potent flower stoners are looking for. There is no way to tell if a cannabis seed is male or female until just before it flowers, so it is always a gamble to use a seed found in a stash. To figure out the sex, cultivators would need to invest in a grow setup and spend time and money on water and energy only to realize the plant is male and won’t produce buds. Though it may cost a little extra, it’s always a better idea to save time and money by purchasing cannabis seeds from a reputable seed bank.
The first step in narrowing down the huge variety of cannabis seeds is actually deciding between regular, feminized, or autoflowering seeds. From there, home growers can decide on a specific strain to try. Let’s take a look at the types of cannabis seeds to choose from.
Regular cannabis seeds
Regular cannabis seeds are completely natural and act as the seeds would in the wild. When purchasing regular cannabis seeds, there is a 50/50 chance that the seeds are female and will flower. Why would anyone want to gamble with their luck? Breeders use pollen from male plants to crossbreed with female plants and create new strains and more diverse genetics. These seeds are available in indica, sativa, high THC, and high CBD. Regular seeds are not recommended for novice home growers or those who are not trying to breed new strains as male and female plants need to be seperated.
Feminized cannabis seeds
The most common type of cannabis seeds are the feminized variety. This is because 99.99% of feminized seeds are females and will create flowers. Breeders invented feminized seeds by forcing female plants to create pollen by blocking the natural production of certain chemicals, then fertilizing the flowers from normal female plants with the female pollen. Feminized cannabis seeds are the most cost-effective since it’s almost guaranteed that the seeds will develop sticky dank buds.
Autoflowering cannabis seeds
The latest innovation to cannabis seeds are autoflowering strains. Cannabis plants begin flowering when there is a change in light. Indoor growers will switch the light schedule when they want their plants to flower. Autoflowering seeds contain Cannabis ruderalis genetics, so the plants will begin to flower on their own based on time rather than a change in light. Generally speaking, autoflowering strains will change from the vegetative stage to the flowering stage at around the two to four week mark. This type of cannabis seed is ideal for true beginners or those who want a fast flowering plant. Autoflowering seeds are designed to be easy to grow, remain relatively small due to their genetics, and don’t require a change in lighting.
Ready to give home growing a try? Visit Everything For 420 for a huge selection of popular indica, sativa, and hybrid feminized and autoflowering cannabis seeds.