Can CBD Oil Cure Melanoma

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Over the last decade, much attention has been focused on compounds from Cannabis sativa in treating a variety of diseases including cancer. This study examines the abilities of two different cannabidiol oils to decrease the migration and invasion of melanoma cells in vitro. Skin cancers are the most common cancers in the world. While malignant melanoma is the least common type of skin cancer, it is the deadliest. Patients diagnosed with stage IV disease have only a 15-20% five-year survival rate even with aggressive multimodal treatment, demonstrating the need for additional therapeutic options. Because melanoma is often fatal when it has metastasized, an ideal treatment would not only decrease the proliferation and viability of the cancer cells but would also decrease their ability to spread via these mechanisms. While the medicinal value of Cannabis remains controversial because of the psychotropic effects of the most well-known cannabinoid compound, tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the many compounds in Cannabis that does not produce the high normally associated with the marijuana plant. Cannabidiol has been shown to decrease melanoma growth and viability in vitro and in vivo. The first hypothesis of this study is that CBD oil will also decrease migration and invasion of melanoma cells in vitro. Further, because the Cannabis plant contains over one-hundred-thirteen different cannabinoids and other compounds known to have health benefits, the second hypothesis of this project is that extracted CBD, Charlotte’s Web, oil will have a greater effect on melanoma cells than purified CBD alone. To test these hypotheses, migration assays using a scratch-wound protocol and invasion assays using a modified Boyden chamber assay were used. In the scratch wound assay the purified CBD performed significantly better than the Charlotte’s Web CBD oil at the highest concentration used; however, in the invasion assay there was no significant difference between the performance of the two oils. Our data suggests that both oils are effective in reducing melanoma cells metastatic potential in vitro, and their use as adjuvant or alternative therapies warrants further study. CBD’s Impact on Melanoma Cells Hannah Yohe ’21 has read the news articles and seen the new businesses popping up touting the benefits of medical marijuana and cannabidiol, or CBD. She’s watched

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Can CBD Oil Cure Melanoma

Dr. Lori L. Hensley

Abstract

Over the last decade, much attention has been focused on compounds from Cannabis sativa in treating a variety of diseases including cancer. This study examines the abilities of two different cannabidiol oils to decrease the migration and invasion of melanoma cells in vitro. Skin cancers are the most common cancers in the world. While malignant melanoma is the least common type of skin cancer, it is the deadliest. Patients diagnosed with stage IV disease have only a 15-20% five-year survival rate even with aggressive multimodal treatment, demonstrating the need for additional therapeutic options. Because melanoma is often fatal when it has metastasized, an ideal treatment would not only decrease the proliferation and viability of the cancer cells but would also decrease their ability to spread via these mechanisms. While the medicinal value of Cannabis remains controversial because of the psychotropic effects of the most well-known cannabinoid compound, tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the many compounds in Cannabis that does not produce the high normally associated with the marijuana plant. Cannabidiol has been shown to decrease melanoma growth and viability in vitro and in vivo. The first hypothesis of this study is that CBD oil will also decrease migration and invasion of melanoma cells in vitro. Further, because the Cannabis plant contains over one-hundred-thirteen different cannabinoids and other compounds known to have health benefits, the second hypothesis of this project is that extracted CBD, Charlotte’s Web, oil will have a greater effect on melanoma cells than purified CBD alone. To test these hypotheses, migration assays using a scratch-wound protocol and invasion assays using a modified Boyden chamber assay were used. In the scratch wound assay the purified CBD performed significantly better than the Charlotte’s Web CBD oil at the highest concentration used; however, in the invasion assay there was no significant difference between the performance of the two oils. Our data suggests that both oils are effective in reducing melanoma cells metastatic potential in vitro, and their use as adjuvant or alternative therapies warrants further study.

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CBD’s Impact on Melanoma Cells

Hannah Yohe ’21 has read the news articles and seen the new businesses popping up touting the benefits of medical marijuana and cannabidiol, or CBD. She’s watched as friends and family purchase CBD products that offer promises of helping with joint inflammation or anxiety. While the York College Biology major is a believer in the health benefits of medical marijuana, she knew there was a lot of research ahead.

“I wanted to find the gaps in what still needed to be studied,” she says. “I’m really interested in this topic and thought I had an opportunity to dive into research while it’s still early in the process.”

Yohe found that melanoma, a form of skin cancer that can easily spread to other organs, was an area that had a lot of research gaps. York College had melanoma cells available in the lab, so Yohe just had to work to get access to CBD for her independent research project.

“You can’t just go out and buy CBD, despite what you see on the shelves of health stores or even at the gas station,” she says. “There are often other additives in it, and you need a pure form to be able to conduct research. Sigma-Aldrich biotechnology provided lab quality CBD for Yohe’s research. Finally, she could get to work.

A lot of people still have uncertainty about the health benefits of medical marijuana because they don’t understand it, Yohe says. While there are more than 100 chemicals in cannabis, the two most common are THC (short for tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD. Both can be found in marijuana and hemp, although marijuana has more THC, which produces the high, and hemp has more CBD, which has other medicinal properties without the high.

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The FDA has approved one CBD-based drug. Epidiolex is a treatment for several severe forms of rare childhood epilepsy. The National Institutes of Health clinical trials database shows more than 160 trials involving CBD that are either active or recruiting.

“It’s a subject that has a lot of opportunity for understanding,” Yohe says. “Getting into the research now is a great foundation for the work I could be doing in my career.”

While many people think of medical marijuana as a treatment for symptoms, such as anxiety or inflammation, Yohe found that CBD was actually instrumental in treating the root of melanoma. Other medical research shows CBD reduces the size of brain tumors, decreases growth in colon cancer and pancreatic cancer, and slows down blood vessel formation.

Yohe’s research backed up her theory that CBD could reduce the melanoma, but some of her experiments were cut short because of COVID-19. Despite not getting to all of her proposed experiments, she was able to use lab equipment specific to her research and learn some fascinating things about CBD.

“A lot of things we learn in the classroom can be theoretical, so you don’t see them in real life,” she says. “It’s cool when you can do the experiment yourself and get actual data and see that this stuff is real. We can test our theories and learn by doing.”

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